Introduction to Personality

The characteristics of people that make them different from others called personality. All individuals are naturally different in patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving which is also known as personality. Each person possesses strengths and areas of improvement (inadequacies/Weaknesses), you do too.

Keeping the operational concept in view, every person is suggested to get through personality assessment in order to explore your personality type explaining your strengths and areas of development along with suitable professions according to your personality typology. The key benefits of personality exploration are as under:

  • The more you understand about your personality type, better you will able to review and evaluate the personality typology system for you and others as well.
  • The more you understand about personality type of self and other, better you will be able to realize what education, profession and occupation is suitable for you.
  • Understanding strengths and areas of improvement of self and others will enable you to deal with people keeping their personality limitations and protocols in view.
  • Knowing the personality type of people working in teams ensures that necessary capabilities are represented and be reflected in team.
  • Understanding the strengths of people helps in task delegation and project responsibilities.
  • Personality exploration highlights the areas of improvement enabling us to develop with others and for oneself.
  • Understanding the personality type is key central point to motivation for personal and social growth which results in professional development.

Suggestions for Personality Development

Practicing the suggestions mentioned below is helpful in developing a well-balanced personality:

  • Be congruent that you are created by ALLAH.
  • Meet new people for the sake of socialization.
  • Respect independence status of others people.
  • Consider the rights of others to walk on right path.
  • Value the norms of gender, age, grade and society.
  • Avail the right options at right time in a right direction.
  • Understand the people what they want to really share.
  • Avoid to complement the people in presence of others.
  • Maintain a balance emotion with required enthusiasm.
  • Avoid penetrating into the secrecy and privacy of others.
  • Be, cooperative, empathetic as well as supportive to others.
  • Demonstrate a positive outlook and attitude towards others.
  • Bring harmony among your thoughts, feelings and behaviors.
  • Develop healthy interests in personal, social and professional life.
  • Be a good listener to develop effective communication skills.
  • Have integrity and behave people meaningfully: respect & ethics.
  • Ask yourself regularly: “What am I doing? Why am I doing it? Who benefits from it?” Ask these questions in every type of situation.



Personality Typology

Personality typology system uses four-scale structure for exploring and categorizing personality. All abbreviations are first letters, other than N for Intuition.

(E) Extraversion or Introversion (I)
(S) Sensing or Intuition (N)
(T) Thinking or Feeling (F)
(J) Judging or Perceiving (P)

There is no ‘right/wrong’ or ‘good/bad’ personality type. After exploring and categorizing personality type, you will be able to choose the most suitable career path.



Management Plan for ENFJ

ENFJs should practise following suggestions to develop their personality:

  • Focus on paying attention to your insights i.e. you stay opened to potential that is under your judgements and values.
  • Perceive and gauge your abilities objectively within yourself.
  • Focus on personal growth to close attention to your motivation.
  • Maintain balance between what seem correct/valuable and subjective judgements.
  • Explore contradictory meaning of values which affect thought pattern and your sense right and wrong.

Management Plan for ENFP

ENFPs should practise following suggestions to develop their personality:

  • Learn people skills to manage social and professional linkages.
  • Prepare and concentrate on personal, social, emotional and career development plans.
  • Develop your professional life skills and capabilities to ensure the professional/occupational growth for success.
  • Strengthen your mind capacity to judgments without using your personal remarks in a rationalizing mode.

Management Plan for ENTP

ENTPs should practise following suggestions to develop their personality:

  • Develop analytical skills to interpret the information you receive.
  • Avail sufficient time and space to work with ideas and possibilities.
  • Shape and enlarge your thinking capacity to process out all possibilities.
  • Understand yourself and others in a truly objective way.
  • Pay close attention to objectives you are working on new information.

Management Plan for ESFJ

ESFJs should practise following suggestions to develop their personality:

  • Discover and think about hidden perspectives of the occurrence.
  • Avoid comparing your vision of life to others successful persons.
  • Escape assumptions and think logically with solid reasons.
  • Determine your point of view without passing personal judgments to people.

Management Plan for ESFP

ESFPs should practise following suggestions to develop their personality:

  • Increase your understanding for rational objective value system.
  • Pay close attention to motivation for valuing actions and passions.
  • You should be consciously aware of your tendency to discard anything that does not agree with sense of appearance and work.
  • You should try to manage situations from others’ perspectives without making personal judgments.
  • Exercise your feeling in true and congruent manners.
  • Understand the effects of your inner life that truly matter.
  • Create strong value system, can be assertive for healthy change.
  • Ask questions and take time to ask the same questions of yourself to make difference in your own thoughts, feelings and responses.

Management Plan for ESTJ

ESTJs should practise following suggestions to develop their personality:

  • Collect all possible facts before passing your final judgments.
  • Be willing to create principles based on ethics, laws and facts.
  • Make sure that you understand the idea, before figuring out how it fits into your principle system.
  • Learn to regulate and express your emotions positively.
  • Learning from those people who are different from you.

Management Plan for ENTJ

ENTJs should practise following suggestions to develop their personality:

  • Learn and recognize the role and significance of intuition in life.
  • Respect others regardless any discrimination i.e. sect, race, age, gender, socioeconomic status, ethnicity and colour.
  • Question your mind to find reasons why you consider things.
  • Rely on valid source of information.

Management Plan for ESTP

ESTPs should practise following suggestions to develop their personality:

  • Emphasis on rationale thinking to make logical decisions.
  • Evaluate your actions and relationship with quality point of view.
  • Challenge yourself with new and demanding tasks.

Management Plan for INFJ

INFJs should practise following suggestions to develop their personality:

  • Avoid to dismiss ideas or thigs prematurely.
  • Apply your rational and realistic judgments against your own ideas also to verify its effectiveness.
  • Take things entirely into your order to understand them.
  • If you are concerned with consistent development, extend your close attention to your driving forces.



Management Plan for INFP

INFPs should practise following suggestions to develop their personality:

  • Broaden your perspective to consider the accurate picture of what is really going on or happened.
  • Take information objectively, before fitting in your value system.
  • Beware of your tendency to remove anything that does not correspond with your values.
  • Avoid comparing yourself to concentrate on real understanding.

Management Plan for INTJ

INTJs should practise following suggestions to develop their personality:

  • You should use your realistic approach towards ideas.
  • Comprehend things entirely before proceeding towards action.
  • Pay close attention to the subject of your judgment.
  • Consider first to understand, then to judge.

Management Plan for INTP

INTPs should practise following suggestions to develop their personality:

  • Consider the information gained through reasons and logics.
  • Develop tendency to do something new with a new skill.
  • Evaluate the world in truly objective way and how you fit into the world rather than how the world fits into your life.

Management Plan for ISFJ

ISFJs should practise following suggestions to develop their personality:

  • Be sure, your view not be shaken by new information.
  • Pay close attention for deciding about good/bad and right/wrong.
  • Analyse the connections between your feelings and world.
  • Do not pass judgments or compare situations to your own.

Management Plan for ISFP

ISFPs should practise following suggestions to develop their personality:

  • Beware that an opinion that does not match with you, is not reflection of your inner.
  • For personal growth, pay attention to your motivation enhancement.
  • Look at the situations from others’ perspectives without making personal judgments about the situations or the other people’s perspectives.

Management Plan for ISTJ

ISTJs should practise following suggestions to develop their personality:

  • Apply your judgments against information that you have collected rather than against single fact or idea coming from others.
  • Before passing judging remarks, it is appropriate to put all new data into the context of existing facts.
  • Working with all facts will improve your ability to conclude effectively and will reduce the occurrence of reactionary and isolationist approach.

Management Plan for ISTP

ISTPs should practise following suggestions to develop their personality:

  • Get rid from the situations you are not comfortable with.
  • Develop the tendency to do ‘New’ to exercise the known skills.
  • Your task is to understand the world in an objective way rather than understanding how world fits in with your way of life.



Introduction to Emotional Intelligence (E.I)

Emotional Intelligence/Emotional Quotient (E.I/EQ) is ability to recognize one’s own and others’ emotions. Emotional Intelligence helps in:

  1. Identification of human feelings.
  2. Label the emotions appropriately.
  3. Use emotional information in healthy direction.
  4. Guide thinking and behavior pattern in accordance with emotional state.

It is significant for personal, social and professional as well as institutional /organizational development, because the principles of emotional intelligence provide directions to assess people’s behaviors, management styles, attitudinal disposition and interpersonal skills. It is also considered important in career selection, career planning, career development, human resource planning and job profiling along with recruiting the right selection for quality working. It is strongly linked with concepts of ethics, respect, protocols, love and spirituality: bringing compassion and humanity. The wider perspective of emotional intelligence enable us to be successful human not only a progressive professional. We all have met people who are academically brilliant and yet are socially and inter-personally hopeless and we know that despite possessing a high I.Q. rating success does not follow.

Developing Self-awareness

Considering the first pillar of EQ, knowing what one is feeling at any given time and analyzing the impact of feelings on self and others. Self-awareness is having a clear perception of thoughts, feelings, emotions and behaviors as it is foundation of emotional intelligence which differentiates low performers from high performers. Self-awareness allows us to perceive ourselves and others with respect to attitude and responses towards surroundings. Developing self-awareness is important in every stage of life at school, at college, at university, at workplace and at home. Practicing the following suggestions leads to develop self-awareness.

  • Self-assessment. Set time for self-assessment in solitude.
  • Socialization. Peopling skills can bring raise in self-awareness.
  • Practice Norms. Learn to respond acceptably as per norms.
  • Diary Keeping. Write a diary for both cathartic and enlightening.
  • Ownership. Take responsibility of your actions and consequences.

Developing Self-confidence, Self-regulation/Self-control

Our self-assurance in trusting our abilities, capacities and judgments is called self-confidence. Controlling or re-directing one’s emotions and anticipating consequences before taking action is called self-regulation. Self-control is ability to manage actions and decisions you take in routine life. One of the key parts of culture is to focus on self-improvement. A person with self-control is able to meet temptations and distractions calmly. You should take charge of your life confidently. By following simple steps, you can build, strengthen and maintain self-control. There are two main things contribute to self-confidence: (1) self-efficacy (Your belief in your innate ability to achieve goals: It as a personal judgement “how well you can execute courses of action required to deal with prospective situations”) and (2) self-esteem (Confidence in one’s own worth or self-respect). You are being guided to follow the suggestions to boost self-confidence:

  • Better Outlook. If you dress up nicely, you feel presentable and ready to manage the world around you.
  • Personal Schema. Use mental photo shopping skills to work on your self-image. If it is not a good one, change it.
  • Positive Attitude. Replace negative thoughts with positive one. With this tiny little skills, you may be able to achieve and change whole thought pattern in a short time frame.
  • Avoid Negativity. Learn to aware of thoughts and feelings you have about yourself and what you are doing to recognize negative self-talk and techniques to change it.
  • Monologue. Start listening your thoughts, writing a journal about the thoughts you have about yourself and analysing why you have such thoughts. Think about the good things about yourself and the things you can do well and the things you like.
  • Enlist Positives and Negatives. Enlist suffering and prospering areas of your life. If you are failing all of your classes in school, you may need to study. If you are gaining weight at an alarming rate, you may need to sacrifice a few parts of your meals. Think of causes and solutions against every problem and write it down. Make it sure; you are not the only one with this problem. Students often refer to poor self-control when they have problems with diet, exercise, work/study habits and emotional behaviour.
  • Identify and Focus on Un-controllable. Being informed makes the right decision easier. If you want to lose weight, taking the time to read about nutrition and healthy dieting will naturally motivate you. If you have friends with similar problems, ask them about their own experiences. By sharing notes, you get tips to coping mechanisms and strategies.
  • Self-assessment. Start challenging yourself to control your behavior for a short span of time. If you are addicted to television, try turning it off for one day. Then work up to leaving it off for two days, then longer.
  • Ask Family and Friends for Development. Share your family and friends to remind you about your goals whenever you fallback into bad behaviors. Family and friends can also join you in alternate actions when you are having trouble in controlling yourself.
  • Change the Atmosphere. When you feel losing your self-control, immediately think of something else you can do. Go for a walk. Drink a glass of water. This will over-turn the train of thought and give you time to regain your self-discipline.

Developing Motivational Drive

Applying emotional factors to achieve goals, enjoy learning process and persevere in face of obstacles is known as motivation. It is a state of internal and external factors which encourages aspiration and liveliness to attain goals. Motivation possesses three types of conscious and unconscious factors such as:

(1)     Intensity of desire or need.

(2)     Incentive or reward of the goal.

(3)     Expectations of individual and his/her peer.

Motivation and hopefulness can be strengthened by practicing following techniques.

  • Create a Hymn. Hymn is a verbal statement that reinforces a positive mind-set which is helpful and keeps spirits high. It can be something simple like “I am strong and “I can get through this,” or “I can get more creative.
  • Planning for Smart Goals. It is good to have big goals, but first start from small, achievable and measurable one. In addition to setting smart milestones, make sure they are measurable and specific in achievement.
  • Commit and Accomplish Publicly. Commit your goals by sharing with your family and friends. Not only creating a support system, it will also help you to feel more accountable for achieving goal.
  • Be Routine Oriented. It is important to develop routine that will keep you inspired and move toward accomplishment. Routine can differ from students to student, so do some experiments to find what works for you. You may find that a quick jog in morning clears your mind and improves your outlook. You may like to read a chapter for self-improvement before going to bed. It could even be as simple as walking up 15 minutes early so that you can eat a leisurely breakfast out on the porch before work. Whatever routine you choose, make sure it encourages peacefulness. If you are happy and relaxed, motivation will enhance.
  • Assertive Mindedness. Optimism is a learnt mental state. In order to keep your motivation high, optimism should be learnt and sustained. The first step to learning optimism is to acknowledge the moments when you are being pessimistic. Once you have been acknowledged, you have the power to debate pessimism away.

Developing Empathy

Sensing the emotions and feelings of others. The ability to step into the shoes of other persons aiming to understand their feelings and perspectives for guiding our actions. Empathy encompasses both mental and emotional processes. It is natural, but it also can be learned. This habit can cultivate to improve the quality of lives. Practicing empathy can lead to greater connection with others in which you become more loving and less judgmental. Empathy can be fostered by through following suggestions:

  • Identification of Emotions. To cultivate and increase empathy, you need to start with yourself. Pay close attention to your emotional state; consider what situation changes your emotion, what gives rise to positive or negative emotions.
  • Cultivation of Curiosity. Empathic People (EPs) have curiosity about strangers. Curiosity expands empathy when you talk to people outside their usual social circle, exposure to lives and view the world from different angles. Crucially, it tries to understand the world inside the head of other person. Talk to person sitting next to you on the bus. Avoid be an examiner, be interest inquirer.
  • Diverse Peopling Skills. Get to know people of all sects, ages, ethnicities, gender orientations, socio-economic backgrounds and level of abilities. The more types of people you get to know, the more experiences you will have to draw for increasing your empathy.
  • Draw Similarities between You and Others. When we draw difference between ourselves and other people, it is difficult to understand others. Especially, find out similarities between you and people you do not like or who you disagree with. For greater empathy, seek out similarities between you and other species.
  • Reflection of Perspective. Taking perspective encompasses the cognitive component of empathy and helps you to improve their own empathy. By imagining how others feel, you better identify with them. For instance, when witnessing someone else’s grief at the loss of a loved one, picture how you would feel losing someone close to you. While your experience is not the same as someone else’s, you can get close to how they feel through the lens of your own grief, whether imagined or real. This process is a building block in empathizing with others.

Developing Social skills

Managing relationships, inspiring others and inducing desired responses from them is the considered as social skills. Ability to respond and act acceptably according to norms of society for personal and community well-being is known as social skills. There are some common and essential social skills:

(1)     Interpersonal

(2)     Planning

(3)     Collaboration

(4)     Analysis

(5)     Innovation

(6)     Management

(7)     Computer

(8)     Organizational Leadership

You can make yourself positively socialized by following the techniques:

  • Defeat Nervousness. Avoid from shyness. If you have not already, then you need to do so.
  • Social Participation. You will never get better if do not get involved in various debates. It is good way to improve social skills. Talk to someone you would not usually talk.
  • Build Self-esteem. You will succeed if you develop confidence, so recognize each small thing; you accomplish, realize that value has come from you and reside in you.
  • Inter Personal Communication. At school, college, university, work, grocery store or at any other place, communication is powerful tool to enhance social skills.
  • Maintain Inner Peace. People will like you when you are comfortable with yourself. You can help to grow these feelings by building your sense of self-worth.



Introduction to Intelligence

It is an ability to learn though reading materials/virtual mods/environment/data to comprehend, analyse and interact with one’s environment both verbally and non-verbally. This capacity also includes:

(1)     Adaptability to adjust in the new/changed environment.

(2)     Dimensions for knowledge and ability to acquire it.

(3)     Capability for reasoning and abstract thought.

(4)     Ability to comprehend associations.

(5)     Ability to evaluate, judge and taking decisions.

(6)     Diversity for original and productive thought.

          Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence

Fluid intelligence is an ability to process new information, learn and solve problems whereas crystallized intelligence is stored knowledge, accumulated over the years. The two types work together and are equally important.

Achievement and Intelligence

Achievement is assessed through tests designed to measure students’ knowledge in content domain in which they have received instructions. In contrast to achievement, intelligence is assessed via tests broader in scope than achievement tests and are designed to measure cognitive skills, abilities and knowledge that students have accumulated as a result of their life experiences coupled with skills in application to problem-solving.

Basic and Applied Intelligence

Basic intelligence is fundamental or factual information about something that is collected and produced in results reports whereas applied intelligence is a way of combining artificial intelligence technologies with data analytics, automation and human ingenuity and applying them to solve our most complex issues. It enables to deliver intellectual insights to drive innovation and obtain outcomes.

Intelligence can be measured in following two formats.

Abductive Reasoning and Algorithms

Abductive Reasoning is a type of logical inference starts with an observation and sets out to find the most likely, least complex explanation and delivers a plausible conclusion, but does not verify it absolutely whereas Algorithms is a sets of rules, initially set by humans for computer programs to follow.

Artificial Intelligence and Analogical Reasoning

Artificial Intelligence is broad term used to describe the set of technologies that enable machines to sense, comprehend, act and learn. When scientists and mathematicians began discussing how a mechanical device could be used to imitate the human process of mathematical deduction and Analogical Reasoning compares similarities between two concepts, systems or objects to draw conclusions about what is likely to be true about the new concept, system or object.

Inductive and Deductive Reasoning

Deductive Reasoning is the ability to comprehend through available facts, information or knowledge whereas Inductive Reasoning involves making a generalization from specific facts and observations. Deductive reasoning uses a top-down approach whereas inductive reasoning uses a bottom-up approach. Deductive reasoning moves from generalized statement to a valid conclusion, whereas Inductive reasoning moves from specific observation to a generalization. In deductive reasoning, the conclusions are certain, whereas, in Inductive reasoning, the conclusions are probabilistic. Deductive arguments can be valid or invalid, which means if premises are true, the conclusion must be true, whereas inductive argument can be strong or weak, which means conclusion may be false even if premises are true.

Verbal Intelligence and Non-verbal Intelligence

The ability to analyze information and solve problems by using language based reasoning is called Verbal Intelligence and the ability to analyze information & solve problems with a little or no use of language. It is with the one from one’s time of birth OR natural innate intelligence.

Benefits of IQ Assessment for Students

Measurement and applications of intellectual management results in following benefits for students:

(1)     Helping to meet and enhance unique pattern of cognitive strengths.

(2)     Preparing to get turnover from schooling and life experiences.

(3)     Empowering to make career planning.

(4)     Serving as baseline skill to produce reasoning abilities.

(5)     Providing with potential to learn across the curriculum.

(6)     Feeding with verbal and non-Verbal reasoning skills.

(7)     Enabling to get success from screening programs of employers.

(8)     Providing information regarding areas of strength and weakness.

(9)     Allowing to be compared to age-or grade-peer.

(10)    Helping in solving verbal, arithmetic and pictorial complications.

(11)    Making fluent in questions and answers for competitive exams.

(12)    Enabling to get knowledge of ratios, proportions, fractions and data interpretation etc.

(13)    Moving beyond retaining and recalling information.

(14)    Empowering in decision-making skills.

(15)    An effective way to strengthen life skills.

(16)    Facilitating in comprehension, evaluation and creativity.

(17)    Transferring information to circle of professional skills circle.

Strategies to Improve Intellectual Management

Intellectual management capacity can be strengthened and improved through following practical suggestions:

(1)     Establish gross motor exercises to develop fine motor skills.

(2)     Challenge your brain to think differently includes reasons.

(3)     Play logic/strategic puzzles and games.

(4)     Work on challenging your brain in new ways.

(5)     Get physical exercise for your sound physical development.

(6)     Expand your thinking horizons to making your reasoning broader.

(7)     Think of new procedures to do old things.

(8)     Be observant and Keep track of your progress to develop more.

(9)     Minimize distracting indicators and influences.

(10)    Learn multiplication tables to find arithmetic reasoning.

(11)    Visualize impacts of what you are doing.

(12)    Use demonstration skills for learning up gradation.

(13)    Consider background knowledge before learning new skills.

(14)    Perform practice-centered activities for hands-on learning and practical skills development.

(15)    Practice group working to make thinking more operational, concrete, productive and constructive.

(16)    Memorizing certain common things will help you to sharpen retention skills.

(17)    Learn the use of mnemonic strategies.

(18)    Emphasize on writing for healthy results and group discussion for learning through shared experiences.

(19)    Before starting conversation or task, ask for rules to get work done with quality within time frame.

(20)    Do not get frustrated by opinions of others.

(21)    Do not worry about incomplete tasks or if things do not seem/go logical. Sometimes it is okay to move-on and re-visit assignment later for betterment and quality enhancement.

(22)    Club your information and develop a link between occurrences.

(23)    Move ahead and place your knowledge into categories. It will help you to recall information when you need it for decision-making.

(24)    Establish specific goals to manage step-by-step, do not hung-up.

(25)    Develop logical and realistic verbal and non-verbal communication among concepts.

(26)    Emphasize analyzing the conditions to find mature conclusions.

(27)    Learn to get actual message of words to give them a meaningful understanding.

(28)    Perform visual-motor and gross motor exercises.

(29)    Learn multiplication tables and its patterns for quick and shortcut arithmetic skills.

(30)    Develop realistic non-verbal communication among diagrams.



Introduction to Core Values

An ethic program for human to define a set of values that represent the moral ideals for human being and organization is called core values system. Core values are desirable and trans-situational goals that serve as guiding principles in life. When students think of their values, they think of what is important to them in their lives (Security, Independence, Wisdom, Success, Kindness and Pleasure). Each student holds numerous values with varying degree of importance. A particular value may be important to one student, but may be unimportant or less important to other student. So core values are differently defined like:

  1. Values are beliefs, tied indistinguishably to emotion, not objective and ideas.
  2. Values are motivational construct and refer to desirable goals which students strive to attain.
  3. Values guide the selection or evaluation of actions, policies, people and events.
  4. Values serve as standards or criteria.

The ten basic values are intended to include all core values recognized in cultures around the world.


  • Independent thought and action; exploring, choosing and creating life goals/career.


(2)     Create novelty with excitement in life to overcome career’s challenge.


(3)     Bring pleasure and sensuous gratification for oneself.


(4)     Personal success through demonstrating competence according to social standards.


(5)     Social status and prestige with sources and resources.


(6)     Safety, harmony and stability of society, of relationships and of self.


(7)     Restraint of actions, inclinations and impulses likely to upset and violate social expectations or norms.


(8)     Respect, commitment and acceptance of customs and ideas that traditional culture or religion provide the students.


(9)     Preserving and enhancing the welfare of those with whom students is in frequent personal contact.


(10)    Understanding, appreciation, tolerance and protection for welfare of all people and nature.