The hierarchical progression taken by students in education and profession/occupation throughout the lifespan is called career. There are two phases of career
Basing on aptitude, intellectual capacity and personal interests, students choose the best possible subject combination for their academic career growth.
This is the phase in which students select and join the profession/occupation that best suits to them aligned with their academic achievements.
The professional services intended to empower students to make realistic informed career decisions i.e. selection of educational and occupational choices matching with their personality, intellectual capacity, interests and core values.
Career Counseling develops potential, makes aware about opportunities and enables students to manage career meaningfully. Students must get career counseling services with respect to knowledge management, positive attitude, skills attainment and decision-making which lead to success in career. Career counselling services provide students about understanding of available educational avenues, professional trends and job market so that they can develop their skills accordingly.
Counselling of parents is also required, so that they can help their children in choosing a better career path for their children which is market friendly as well as manage the required finance for academic career.
Factors Affecting on Career Decision-making
Career decision-making is not simply matching student to education, profession and occupation. During planning the career, it is important to beware of the contexts in which career progresses. These are following influencers impact students’ career:
|a. Individual Influencers||b. Social Influencers||c. Environmental Influencers|
(3) Belief System
(5) Personal Interests
(6) Socio-economic Status
|(1) Education Achievement|
(2) Geographical Location
(3) Employment Market
(4) Political Decisions
(5) Time Perspective
(6) Historical Trends
Traditional and Contemporary Career Counseling
|a. Traditional Counselling||b. Contemporary Counselling|
|(1) Just one/on time career information.||(1) Acquisition of skills that support lifelong learning and continuous career development|
|(2) Follow parents without exploring the aptitude, personality type and intellectual capacity/skills.||(2) Experiential activity, personal career planning and skills attainment nurtured throughout developmental process|
|(3) Career-related information is provided at the end of secondary school level.||(3) Career development is a life-long process and is explicit throughout schooling. Emphasis is placed on planning, logical thinking, transforming knowledge and focusing on keeping options open.|
|(4) Career outcomes are exhibited in a successful transition from school to further education, training or work.||(4) Career outcomes are open and expressed throughout student experience at school, college or university level building their spirit and aspirations that endure after exiting school to a successful life/work choice|
Benefits of Career Counseling for Students
Career Counseling provides following long-term benefits to students:
- Necessary help to make a realistic educational plan.
- Training in personality growth and development.
- Helping to choose career according to personality and lifestyle.
- Enabling to uplift careers in conformity with ideology/norms.
- Growing interview and live communication skills of students.
- Encouraging facilitative and co-operative peer interactions.
- Assuring equitable access to educational opportunities.
- Relating educational program to professional success.
- Developing decision-making and problem-solving skills.
- Preparing students for challenges of coming century.
- Introducing to personal interests, skills and aptitude.
- Assisting in developing effective interpersonal skills.
- Empowering in acquiring knowledge of self and others.
- Teaching time management and other life skills.
- Training to be successful in all phases of career.
- Facilitating career exploration and development.
- Broadening knowledge of ever-changing world.
- Fostering resilience factors for students.
- Enhancing personal development.
- Providing advocacy for students.
Educational Disciplines & Subjects
(1) Management & Business
Management & Business studies develop a broad understanding of business and its management by providing subject-specific knowledge in areas like marketing, customer care, finance, operations, communication, information technology as well as business development and strategies.
- Business Management
This course has been designed to teach knowledge and skills necessary to perform leadership roles in business management in corporate sector. Business management teaches to manage activities such as account management, tax return preparation and employee supervision. Job options for business management include work as business development specialist, account executive, business analyst and office manager.
This educational course provides wide range of managerial skills in particular area of business. The general business principles, taking courses in accounting, finance, business management, human resources, business statistics, marketing and economics are studied in commerce.
- Information Technology
Information technology prepares to understand the world of information technology and its management occur at interface between information technology and business. This course introduces to analyze problem in information technology and defines computing requirements appropriate to its solution with a focus how to design, implement and evaluate a computer-based system, process, component and program to meet desired needs. The course leads to recognize the need for continuing professional development and imparts an understanding of professional, ethical, legal, security and social issues as well as responsibilities in information technology. Information technology is managed in accordance with its needs and priorities and may include tangible investments like computer hardware, software, data, networks and data center facilities.
- Public Administration
Public administration works for federal, provincial and municipal public servants for higher administrative and management positions. Curriculum of public administration provides the knowledge, skills, frameworks and tools needed to lead and manage public sector and non-profit organizations including management, leadership, finance, ethics, human resources, quantitative and qualitative analysis, budget implementation and rules & regulations of public governance.
- Disaster Preparedness & Management
Disaster can be divided in two types (1) man-made disaster and (2) natural disaster. Disaster management prepares to understand causes of disaster, gain experience in analyze causes of specific disaster, analyze and critique strategies for disaster mitigation and apply learning to specific disaster mitigation related situations in social sciences, management sciences, engineering, environmental, medical and psychology.
(2) Arts & Humanities
The arts & humanities teach how to develop and create ideas have affected human culture and society. However, there is crossover between two areas as well as with social sciences like anthropology and subjects like law and modern languages are sometimes also considered as arts & humanities. The arts & humanities are about creation, connection, reflection and curiosity include visual art, media art, music, theatre, creative writing, study of languages, culture, race and gender, classics, history, philosophy, religion, literature and linguistics. Skills learned in arts and humanities such as communication, collaboration, creative problem solving, critical thinking and writing are valuable in a wide range of jobs especially in this century characterized by rapid change.
Education studies concerned with how learn throughout and examine the skills and methods behind educating and teaching. The course prepares for wide variety of careers that involve training, teaching or leading others, especially children. Job options include: Community education officer, early years teacher, education administrator, English as a foreign language teacher, primary school teacher, secondary school teacher and teaching assistant.
- Research & Evaluation
Research & evaluation examines techniques and process of program evaluation and policy research in addition to studying social and political context within which evaluation occurs. The course informs the decision-making process in variety of fields including business, social services, organizational development, education systems and conflict resolution.
It takes the range of qualitative and quantitative methods of research. They become versed in areas like survey design, statistical data analysis and qualitative inquiry.
- Library & Information
The course prepares for professional practice in library and equips with practical skills required for identification, management, organisations of information stored to fostering understanding of processes by which information is produced, disseminated, controlled and recorded.
Studies of History(s) lays the foundation for social inquiry on politics and culture, bridge humanities with social sciences, trains in conceptual rigor, archive research, produce critical analysis and historical writing. Course of history offers expertise include history of capitalism, politics, violence, gender, psychology, social movements, history and theory.
- Islamic Study
Islamic Studies develop comprehensive knowledge of Islamic intellectual history, religious thought as well as mastery in field of specialization. They are expected to demonstrate competence in Islamic religious history focusing on the development of Islamic civilization, law, society and institutions. Islamic religious thoughts focus on Islamic philosophy, theology and Sufism. Islamic studies focus on composition, redaction and interpretation of Qur’an and Hadith aligned with contemporary Islamic studies focusing on 16th to 21st century developments in Middle East, Iran, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Africa and most recently Europe and America.
- Muslim Civilization
Islamic civilization is based on the value of education of both Qur’an and Prophet MOHAMMAD (SAW) stressed dated back from 8th century to 13th century during historically Islamic world was ruled by caliphates and science, economic development and cultural works flourished. This period is understood to have begun during the reign of Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid (786 to 809) with inauguration of House of Wisdom in Baghdad where scholars from world with different cultural backgrounds were mandated to gather and translate all of world’s classical knowledge into Arabic language. This period is traditionally said to have ended with collapse of Abbasid caliphate due to Mongol invasions and Sack of Baghdad in 1258 AD. Because Islam originated and has developed in an Arab culture, other cultures which have adopted Islam have tended to be influenced by Arab customs. Thus Arab Muslim societies and other Muslims have cultural affinities. Islamic culture inherited an Arab culture born in desert.
- Christian Study
Christian civilization has been intertwined with history and formation of Western society. Christian Church has been major source of social services like schooling, medical care, inspiration for art, culture & philosophy and influential player in politics and religion. It has promulgated the teachings of Jesus within Western world and throughout third-world nations. Gregorian calendar is adopted as civil calendar and is measured from date of Jesus’s birth.
- South Asian Study
South Asian Studies as academic subject researches cultures, societies, religions, politics, histories, languages and literatures of subcontinent which today includes India, Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. Although historical developments in South Asia include discipline’s teaching and research focuses on dynamic, transforming and complex regions of world, specifically India’s global engagement and influence in economics, high-tech research, entertainment, art, international politics and in other fields increases steadily.
- Pakistan Study
Pakistan study aims at enhancing students’ knowledge about history, culture and geography of Pakistan and to become good citizen. It is a compulsory subject from class Ninth (9th) up to the university level. The subject is widely researched in and outside the country.
- Kashmir Study
Kashmir studies are intended to provide introduction to Jammu & Kashmir in its entirety. This course aims to achieve understanding of history, culture, religions and politics of Kashmir. This helps to promote diversity, cultural exchange and cause of regional peace and cooperation.
- Iqbal Study
Iqbal studies strengthen the ideology of Pakistan and to achieve national integrity and unity through message of the poet philosopher of Pakistan Promote the research in the Iqbal studies.
- Fine Arts
Fine art studies integrate diverse subjects including art history, visual studies, ethnomusicology, performance studies and cultural studies. The program provides opportunities to analyze artistic practices in multiple media and to investigate how the practices have been affected by industrialization, colonialism, commercialism and globalization. It offers global and interdisciplinary comprehension of arts. Historically, five main fine arts are painting, sculpture, architecture, music and poetry with performing arts including theatre. Today, fine arts include film, photography, video production, designing, sequential art, conceptual art and printmaking. Fine Arts focus for hands on skills in drawing, sculpture, painting, printmaking and painting. It familiarizes with basic design concepts, leading to use technology to enhance creative abilities in fields like communication design, textiles, ceramics and photography.
Urdu is national language of Pakistan as well as one of the languages spoken in western India. Spoken by 60–70 million people, Urdu descends from the Indo-Iranian branch of Indo-European languages. The number of Urdu speakers constitutes the fourth largest of the languages of the world, after Mandarin Chinese, English and Spanish. Teaching, print and electronic media, research & academic organizations may be potential sources for career development in Urdu language.
Arabic study develops the ability to speak, understand, read and write Arabic language and encourages to foster an appreciation of Islamic literature and civilization. Students expand knowledge of Middle East and of culture of more than one billion Arabs across the globe. The Arabic language is one of the United Nations’ six official languages and U.S. Government considers it one of the most critical languages for Americans to learn. Chicago has one of nation’s largest Arab-American populations in U.S. giving opportunities to visit its communities and gain first-hand knowledge about the Arab culture and language.
Punjabi language occupies central place in South Asia and represents one of the largest and longest-standing Punjabi-language in the world. Outside of South Asia, It is spoken by the inhabitants of the historical region called Punjab, now located in north western India and Pakistan. There are various scripts used to write this language, depending on the region in which the speaker lives. It can be written in Gurmukhi or Devangari script which looks alike. It can also be written in Shahmukhi script which is a variant of Urdu alphabet. There are approximately 110 million speakers of this language worldwide. The course introduces Punjabi language with emphasis on practical written and spoken Punjabi. The course includes learning to read and write phonology, basic grammar and vocabulary, verb tenses and grammatical constructions.
- Baluchistan & Balochi Language
Baloch is a nation consisting of 500 tribes, their tradition and common values. They are united civilized society and speak common language called Baluchi. This nation lives in a vast land called Baluchistan located in Easter part of Asia north of Gulf occupied by three modern countries Iran, Pakistan and Afghanstan. The capital is Quetta and it has 34,000 sq. miles. Some historians say that Balochi came from Halab, Allepe and are Semites. Balochi is principal language of Baluchistan.
In 1989, Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto gave permission to use local languages, Balochi, Pushto and Brahui in primary education in Balochistan. A Balochi studies section teaches Balochi language and literature. Balochi academy located in Quetta publishes literary works in Balochi. The first radio broadcasts in Baluchi were presented on 25th December, 1949 by Radio Pakistan with 45-minute daily program on 10-kilowatt short wave transmitter from its Karachi station.
- Sindhi Language
Sindhi is an Indo-Aryan language of Sindh province spoken by Sindhi people, state of Rajasthan, Punjab and Gujarat in India as well as immigrant communities. Sindhi language television is broadcasting in Pakistan such as KTN, Sindh TV, Awaz Television Network. Sindhi is computing a software for Sindhi language and is intended for the users to read, write and learn Sindhi language online or offline. Sindhi language keyboards have been developed for the Windows OS, Android smartphones. Various other online websites provide Sindhi keyboard such as Keymanweb.org.
- Pashto Language
Pashto is a south eastern Indo-Iranian language spoken in Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran. There are three main varieties of Pashto: Northern Pashto spoken mainly in Pakistan, Southern Pashto spoken in Afghanistan and Central Pashto spoken in Pakistan.
The number of Pashto speakers is estimating range from 45 million to 55 million. Pashto is first language of between 40% and 55% (11 to 15.4 Million) of Afghanistan people. Pashto has about 25 million speakers in Pakistan (15% Population) in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and provinces of Balochistan, Mianwali, Attock, Sindh, Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Pashto was made national language of Afghanistan by royal decree in 1936.
This course provides an insight into culture, ethnography, social structures of life and institutions. Course also teaches the skills of applied English language studies such as applied linguistics, writing/speech and dialogue studies. Aspirants learn to apply advanced skills in analysis and interpretation of how English language functions in real-life contexts. You develop skills/abilities in grammatical and textual competence needed for analysis of authentic language data and advance students’ pragmatic competence with emphasis on English language.
- Saraiki Language
Saraiki is a member of Lahnda branch of Indo-Aryan languages and spoken by about 17 million people mainly in central Pakistan provinces of Sindh and Punjab and in India as well, mainly in the state of Punjab. Saraiki is also known as Siraiki, Seraiki, Multani, Lahndi and Western Punjabi and is considered by some to be a dialect of Punjabi. In Pakistan Saraiki is written with a version of Perso-Arabic alphabet. Saraiki is studied in universities of Pakistan (Islamia University of Bahawalpur, department of Saraiki established in 1989, Allama Iqbal Open University in Islamabad, department of Pakistani languages established in 1998 and Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan, department of Saraiki established in 2006 by district governments of Bahawalpur and Multan and federal institutions of Government of Pakistan).
- Brahui Language
Brahvi people are Pakistani ethnic group of about 2.2 million people with vast majority found in Baluchistan, Pakistan. Brahui (براہوئی) is a Dravidian language spoken by Brahui people in central Baluchistan region of Pakistan and Afghanistan and by expatriate Brahui communities in Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Iraq and Iran. It is isolated from the nearest Dravidian-speaking neighbor population of South India by distance of more than 1,500 kilometres. Kalat, Mastung Khuzdar and parts of Quetta districts of Baluchistan are predominantly Brahui-speaking. Brahui is only Dravidian language which has not been written in a Brahmi-based script, instead, it is written in Arabic script since second half of 20th century. More recently, a Roman-based orthography named Brolikva was developed by Brahui Language Board of the University of Baluchistan in Quetta and adopted by the newspaper Talar.
- Persian Language
Persian language offers the opportunity to acquire acknowledge and skills in reading, writing, listening and speaking in Persian. Studying Persian opens an intriguing world for at least half of the world as the Persian saying goes. In the Muslim era, modern Persian has been the language of politics and literature that culturally connected Anatolia to Central Asia and Northern India. Once aspirants are able to read Persian, they have access to realms of Sufism where Persian produced rich body of literature from the poetry. Persian today includes Farsi, Dari and Tajiki dialects, spoken by more than 100 million people in Middle East (Iran), Central Asia (Tajikistan) and Indian Subcontinent (Afghanistan).
- Hindi Language
Hindi is official and link language of multilingual India. Its homeland is in north of India, but it is the most widely spoken and understood language across India. Hindi is written in the Devanagari script which is also used for Sanskrit, Marathi and Nepali. Hindi has special relationship with Urdu because they have the same grammar and they share basic conversational vocabulary and expressions. Hindi has a rich literary tradition dated back to eleventh century. Modern literature is mostly written in modern standard Hindi that has developed from Khari Boli, a dialect of Hindi spoken around Delhi and Meerut. Hindi literature consists of all genres such as poetry, drama, short stories, novels and essays. Film music has almost become an identity shawl for overseas Indians, many of whom love to sing and dance at the tunes of Hindi songs on Indian cultural and national holidays.
- Bangla Language
Bangla is an Indo-Aryan language belongs to Indo-European language family. It is the official language of Bangladesh and regional language of India in state of West Bengal. Bangla is sixth most spoken language in world with 250 million speakers. The national anthems of both India and Bangladesh were composed in Bangla by the same Bengali poet, Nobel Laureate Rabindranath Tagore. Bengali language possesses its literature, music, grammar and culture. West and East Bengal dialects are mutually intelligible.
- German Language
German Language course provides basics of conversation by talking and listening with 120 million speakers in over 20 countries. Course introduces students to pronunciation of words and use of phrases and sentences. The course introduces with alphabet, numbers, words and basics of conversation on German. The course teaches letters in German alphabet use basic phrases and numbers and construct sentence in German.
In politics and economy, Germany is important partner in international business. The German companies in foreign countries are as important as Germany itself as country of importation and exportation. Especially in Europe, it has a strong position concerning economy and politics.
Study German language provides important chances in job market. First at companies which work together with German ones, second the outposts of German companies in other countries and third the German companies in Germany. They employers can be impressed with German speaking skills.
For Europeans it is a special skill and important to learn German. The aspirants who decide to study in Germany not only benefit from high quality of educational system. For those who want to study in Germany, it is necessary to have basic skills in the German language. It is important to understand the lectures and literature to pass exams in end of term.
- French Language
French studies provide intellectual, linguistic and cultural contributions of French-speaking regions of the world. Aspirants also specialized in anthropology, creative writing, cultural studies, history of ideas, gender studies, postcolonial studies, poststructuralist thought, second language acquisition and translation periods from 16th to 21st centuries.
(3) Social Sciences
Social science is a major category of academics, concerned with society and relationships among individuals within the society. It has branches and each is considered as ‘Social Science’. A detailed list of sub-disciplines within social sciences can be found at outline of social science.
- Mass Communication
Mass communication is the study of how people exchange information through mass media to large segments of population at same time. It is related to newspaper, magazine and book publishing, as well as radio, television and film even via internet because these mediums are used for disseminating information, news and advertising. The study of mass communication is concerned with how content of mass communication persuades and affects behavior, attitude, opinion or emotion of person or people receiving the information.
Sociology is study of social behavior, origins, development, organization and institutions. It uses methods of empirical investigation and analysis to develop knowledge about social order and change. Sociologists conduct research which are applied directly to social policy and welfare while others focus primarily on refining the theoretical understanding of social processes.
The traditional focus of sociology includes social stratification, social class, social mobility, religion, secularization, law and deviance. Its focuses health, medical, military and penal institutions, the internet, education, social capital and role of social activity in development of scientific knowledge.
- Development Study
Development study is a multidisciplinary branch of social science. It has grown in popularity as a subject of study since early 1990s and has been most widely taught and researched in the third world and in countries with a colonial history such as UK where development study originated. Aspirants of development study progress in international organizations such as United Nations, World Bank, non-government organizations, private development sector, consultancy firms, corporate social responsibility bodies and research centers.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind embracing all aspects of conscious and unconscious experience as well as thought. A professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and classified as social, behavioral or cognitive scientist. Psychology strives to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior while exploring physiological and biological processes that underlie cognitive functions and behaviors. Psychology explores behavior and mental processes including perception, cognition, attention, emotion, intelligence, phenomenology, motivation, brain functioning and personality. Psychology is described as “hub science” with psychological findings linking to research and perspectives from social sciences, natural sciences, medicine, humanities and philosophy.
- International Relations
International relation is an academic discipline that focuses on study of interaction of actors in international politics including states and non-state actors such as United Nations (UN), International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank and Amnesty International. International relations attempts to explain the interactions of states in global interstate system and interactions of others whose behavior originates within one country and is targeted toward other countries. IR provides knowledge and skills to understand relations between nations, internal workings of countries and role of non-governmental representatives in world affairs. It studies relationships between political entities such as states, sovereign states, empires, inter-governmental organizations (IGOs), international non-governmental organizations (INs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and multinational corporations (MNCs) and wider world-systems produced by this interaction. It is drawn from fields of technology and engineering, economics, communication studies, history, international law, demography, philosophy, geography, social work, sociology, anthropology, criminology, psychology, gender studies, cultural studies, culturology and diplomacy. The scope of international relations comprehends globalization, diplomatic relations, state sovereignty, international security, ecological sustainability, nuclear proliferation, nationalism, economic development, global finance, terrorism, organized crime, human security, foreign interventionism and human rights as well as comparative religion.
- Political Science
Political science focuses on theory and practice of government and politics at local, state, national and international levels. Aspirants develop understandings of institutions, practices and relations constitute public life and modes of inquiry that promote citizenship. It focuses on group power of collective decision-making by leading to consider the ethics of power which in turn involves conceptions of community, identity, justice and citizenship. Under subject of political science aspirants gather study of democracy, war, law, rights, wealth and authority. Political science strives to cultivate the habits and skills of clear thought, rigorous analysis and effective argumentation in writing and speech. Students holding degree in political sciences may have diverse range of job opportunities in public, private or non-profit private sectors like in education, law, business, politics, government, communications or journalism.
Philosophy (Love of Wisdom) is study of fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind and language. Historically, philosophy encompassed body of knowledge from Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle to 19th century. “Natural philosophy” including astronomy, medicine and physics. Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument and systematic presentation. Since 20th century, professional philosophers contribute to society primarily as professors, researchers and writers.
- Gender Study
Gender study is interdisciplinary study devoted to gender identity and gendered representation as central categories of analysis includes women’s studies concerning women, feminism, gender, politics and men’s studies and queer studies. This discipline studies gender in fields of literature, language, geography, history, political science, sociology, anthropology, cinema, media studies, human development, law and medicine. It also analyses how race, ethnicity, location, class, nationality, and disability intersect with the categories of gender.
- Diplomacy & Strategic Study
It is interdisciplinary academic field cantered on study of conflict and peace strategies devoted to relationship between international politics, geostrategic, international diplomacy, international economics and military power. This program prepares for careers in Foreign Service, embassies, federal ministries, non-government organizations and international organizations.
- Criminology & Forensic
Forensic science and criminology study issues of crime and criminal behavior with scientific viewpoint, but two disciplines are quite different. Criminology is scientific study of management, causes, control, consequences and prevention of criminal behavior both on individual and social levels. It is drawing from research of sociologists, psychologists, philosophers, psychiatrists, social anthropologists and scholars of law whereas criminology includes examination of evidence, psychological causes of crime and modes of investigation and efficiencies of differing styles of punishment, rehabilitation and corrections.
- Government & Public Policy
Based on national constitutional laws, public policy guides actions taken by administrative branches of state. It works to solve problems, provide justice, supports governmental institutions and encourages active citizenship. It includes elements of economics, sociology, political economy, program evaluation, policy analysis and public management.
(4) Pure Sciences
Pure science yields theories and predictions in natural science i.e. chemistry, biology, geology and physics as well as in empirical sciences such as cognitive and behavioral sciences.
Physics “knowledge of nature” is natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion through space and time along with energy and force. Physics is one of the oldest disciplines through its inclusion of astronomy and a part of natural philosophy along with chemistry, biology and certain branches of mathematics. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research such as biophysics and quantum chemistry. It contributes in electromagnetism that lead to development of television, computers and nuclear weapons and in thermodynamics that lead to development of industrialization and mechanics.
Chemistry is a branch of pure sciences studies composition, structure, properties and change of matter. It includes topics properties of individual atoms, how atoms form chemical bonds to create chemical compounds, interactions of substances through intermolecular forces that give matter its general properties and interactions between substances through chemical reactions to form different substances.
Geologists who want to locate new mineral and oil deposits use chemical techniques to analyze and identify rock samples. Oceanographers use chemistry to track ocean currents, determine the flux of nutrients into sea and measure the rate of exchange of nutrients between ocean layers.
Engineers consider relationships between structures and properties of substances.
Physicists take advantage of properties of substances to detect new sub-atomic particles. Astronomers use chemical signatures to determine age and distance of stars.
Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms including their structure, function, growth, evolution, distribution, identification and taxonomy. Modern biology recognizes the cell as basic unit of life, genes as basic unit of heredity and evolution as engine that propels synthesis and creation of new species.
Biochemistry examines basic chemistry of life, molecular biology studies interactions among biological molecules, botany studies biology of plants, cellular biology examines basic building-block of all life.
Physiology examines physical and chemical functions of tissues, organs and organ systems of organism, evolutionary biology examines processes that produce the diversity of life and ecology examines how organisms interact with environment.
(5) Life Sciences
Life sciences focus on aspects common to life forms such as anatomy and genetics. It is helpful in improving the quality and standard of life and has applications in health, agriculture, medicine, pharmaceutical and food science industries.
- Computer Sciences
Computer science is study of theory, experimentation and engineering forming the basis for designing and use of computers. It is practical approach to computation and its applications and systematic study of feasibility, structure, expression and mechanization of methodical procedures (algorithms) that underlie the acquisition, representation, processing, storage, communication and access to information. It can be divided into computational complexity, computer graphics, real-world visual applications and implementing computation.
Economics deals with description and analysis of production, distribution and consumption of goods and services. Positive economics describes normative economics, applied economics, behavioral economics, mainstream economics and heterodox economics. Economic analysis can be applied throughout society as in business, finance, health care and government. Economic analyses can be applied to crime, education, family, law, politics, religion, social institutions, war, science, and environment. Microeconomics examines behavior of basic elements in economy including individual agents and markets, their interactions and outcomes of interactions. Individual agents include households, firms, buyers and sellers. Macroeconomics analyses the entire economy meaning aggregated production, consumption, savings and investment and issues affecting it including unemployment of resources like labour, capital, and land, inflation, economic growth and the public policies that address these issues (monetary, fiscal & policies).
Forestry is science, art, practice of understanding, managing and using wisely the natural resources associated with derived from forest lands. These resources include timber, water, fish, wildlife, soil, plants and recreation. According to widely used Food and Agriculture Organization definition, forests covered four billion hectares (15 million square miles) or approximately 30 per cent of world’s land area in 2006. Forestry combines elements of ecology, biology, environmental science, public policy and economics to address issues from combating global climate change and invasive species to providing forest products and wildlife habitats. Forestry career path includes forest biologists, professional foresters, wood engineers, forestry business administrators, conservationists and renewable resource managers. Forests account for 75% of gross primary productivity of Earth’s biosphere and contain 80% of Earth’s plant biomass.
Pakistan’s principal natural resources are land and water. About 25% of Pakistan’s agriculture accounts for about 21% of gross domestic product (GDP) and employs about 43% of the labor force. In Pakistan, most agricultural province is Punjab where wheat and cotton are the most grown. Mango orchards are mostly found in Sindh and Punjab provinces that make Pakistan world’s 4th largest producer of mangoes. Agricultural products can be broadly grouped into foods, fibers, fuels and raw materials. Specific foods include cereals (grains), vegetables, fruits, oils, meats and spices. Fibers include cotton, wool, hemp, silk and flax. Raw materials include lumber and bamboo.
- Community Health & Nutrition
Public health & nutrition designs programs, systems, policies and environments aiming to improve and maintain optimal health of populations. It encompasses individual and interpersonal interventions that create changes in knowledge, attitudes and behavior and health outcomes among individuals, families and within community setting.
Statistics deals with collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation and organization of data. In applying statistics to scientific, industrial or social problem, it is conventional to begin with statistical model process. Two main statistical divisions are used in data analysis: descriptive statistics which summarizes data and inferential statistics which draws conclusions from data. Statistics pertains to collection, analysis, interpretation, explanation and presentation of data. While scientific investigations make use of data, statistics is concerned with use of data in context of uncertainty and decision making in the face of uncertainty.
- Live Stock
Livestock is domesticated animals to produce food, fiber and labor. Its production plays major economic and cultural role in numerous rural communities. Livestock includes cattle, sheep, goats, swine, poultry (Including egg-producing poultry), equine animals used for production of food, fish used for food and other animals. It is with national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) contribution of 10.7% and 49.5% to agriculture value added. It also contributes towards national exports and 8.5% to 9.0% of total exports belong to this sector. It is raised by more than 6.5 million small and landless families in rural areas constituting their main livelihood source. Pakistan is gifted with large livestock population well adapted to local environmental conditions. The demand of livestock products is increasing due to population growth, urbanization and economic development in country.
- Rural Development
In developing countries, food security and rural development are on-going challenges. Rural development is only way to provide people in rural areas access to land, water, advances and training. In cooperation with academic institutions and private sector, strategies are developed for increasing production and income in rural areas. It is important to develop rural infrastructure and create access to markets which secures opportunities for life in rural areas, offering long-term success through sustainable strategies. Rural development programs are usually top-down from local or regional authorities, regional development agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), national governments or international development organizations.
Law is rules system enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior which helps ensuring that community shows respect and equality amongst themselves. Law shapes politics, economics, history and society in various ways and serves as mediator of relations between people. Historically, religious laws played a significant role even in settling of secular matters which is still case in religious communities.
The adjudication of law is divided into two main areas 1) Criminal Law and 2) Civil Law. Criminal law deals with conduct that is considered harmful to social order and in which the guilty party is imprisoned or fined. Civil law deals with the resolution of disputes between individuals or organizations.
Geology is science of earth concerned with solid Earth, rocks of which it is composed and processes by which they change over time. It studies solid features of terrestrial planet such as geology of the Moon or Mars. It gives insight into the history of Earth by providing primary evidence for plate tectonics, evolutionary history of life and past climates. It is important for mineral and hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation, evaluating water resources, understanding of natural hazards, remediation of environmental problems and for providing insights into past climate change.
Mathematics is study of quantity, structure, space and change. Mathematicians find patterns and use them to formulate new conjectures to resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures through mathematical proof. Through use of abstraction and logic, mathematics developed from counting, calculation, measurement and systematic study of shapes and motions of physical objects.
Meteorology is interdisciplinary scientific study of atmosphere focuses on weather forecasting. Meteorology, climatology, atmospheric physics and atmospheric chemistry are sub-disciplines of atmospheric sciences. It is described and quantified by variables of Earth’s atmosphere: temperature, air pressure, water vapor, mass flow and variations and interactions of those variables. Spatial scales are used to describe and predict weather on local, regional, and global levels.
- Earth Science
Earth science or geoscience is widely embraced term for fields of science related to the planet Earth. Earth sciences include the study of geology, lithosphere and large scale structure of Earth’s interior as well as atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere. Major sub-disciplines are mineralogy, petrology, geochemistry, geomorphology, paleontology, stratigraphy, structural geology, engineering geology and sedimentology. Geophysicists explore Earth’s core and tectonic and seismic activity of lithosphere. Geophysics is commonly used to supplement work of geologists in developing comprehensive understanding of crustal geology, particularly in mineral and petroleum exploration.
Geography is study of lands, features, inhabitants and phenomena of Earth. It is encompassing discipline that seeks an understanding of Earth and its human and natural complexities. It is defined in two branches of human geography and physical geography. Four historical traditions in geographical research are: spatial analyses of natural and human phenomena, area studies of places and regions, studies of human-land relationships and Earth sciences. Geographers study the space and temporal database distribution of phenomena, processes and features and interaction of humans and their environment.
- Space Science
Space science/space exploration is also called astronautics focuses on physics, chemistry, biology and engineering. Space science probes travel to Moon and planets. The Apollo moon landings, space shuttle, Skylab, Mir and International space stations are outstanding examples of space science. The problems that space science deals include prediction and control of trajectories, orbits and telecommunications between spacecraft and earth, spacecraft design and fabrication and life-support systems for human spaceflight. Space science includes astronomy, astrometry, amateur astronomy, astrophysics, space plasma physics, orbital mechanics/astrodynamics, stellar astronomy, solar astronomy, planetary science, galactic astronomy, extragalactic astronomy, physical cosmology, aerospace engineering, astronautics and aeronautics.
- Physical Education/Sports Science
Sports science, also called physical education science, studies how healthy human body works during exercise and how sports and physical activities promote health and performance from cellular to whole body perspectives. The study of sports science traditionally incorporates areas of physiology (Exercise Physiology), psychology (Sports Psychology), anatomy, biomechanics, biochemistry and bio-kinetics. Opportunities for graduates in field employment as physical education teacher, dietician or nutritionist, performance analyst, sports coach, sports therapist, fitness center manager, sports administrator, strength and conditioning specialist or retail manager of a sports store. Graduates may also be well positioned to undertake further training to become an accredited Physiotherapist, Exercise Physiologist, Research Scientist and Sports Medical Doctor. Jobs are available with a range of organisations in public, private and not-for-profit sectors including: Professional sports clubs, national sporting associations, governing bodies, private health and fitness clubs, spas and public sports and recreation facilities, local authorities, education and higher education institutions, health sector and National Health Service.
Horticulture is science of producing, improving, marketing and using fruits, vegetables, flowers and ornamental plants. It differs from botany and other plant sciences as horticulture incorporates both science and aesthetics. It has impacts on lives by providing fruits and vegetables, offering visual enjoyment and promoting recreational activities. It includes cultivation of medicinal plants, fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, herbs, sprouts, mushrooms, algae, flowers, seaweeds and non-food crops such as grass and ornamental trees and plants.
- Plant Breeding & Genetics
Plant breeding & genetics is a science of changing traits of plants in order to produce desired characteristics. It is practiced worldwide by farmers, professional plant breeders, government institutions, universities, crop-specific industry associations and research centers for thousands of years since near the beginning of human civilization.
- Plant Pathology
Plant pathology (Phytopathology) is scientific study of diseases in plants caused by pathogens (Infectious Organisms) and environmental conditions (Physiological Factors). Organisms cause infectious disease include fungi, oomycetes, bacteria, viruses, viroid, virus-like organisms, phytoplasmas, protozoa, nematodes and parasitic plants. It also involves study of pathogen identification, disease etiology, disease cycles, economic impact, plant disease epidemiology, plant disease resistance, how plant diseases affect humans and animals, pathosystem genetics and management of plant diseases.
- Soil Science
Soil science is study of soil as a natural resource on surface of the Earth including soil formation, classification, mapping, physical, chemical, biological and fertility properties of soil. Engineers, agronomists, chemists, geologists, physical geographers, ecologists, biologists, microbiologists, sylviculturists, sanitarians and archaeologists in regional planning contribute to knowledge of soils and advancement of soil science. Students of soil science learn to identify, interpret and manage soils for agriculture, forestry, rangeland, ecosystems, urban uses, mining and reclamation.
Agronomy is science and technology of producing and using plants for food, fuel, fiber and land reclamation. It has come to encompass work in areas of plant genetics, plant physiology, meteorology and soil science. It is a combination of biology, chemistry, economics, ecology, earth science and genetics. Agronomists are professional practitioners, educators and advisers who work with farmers and companies to implement the latest methods and tools for growing crops profitably and sustainably. They play critical roles in issues of global concern, including food and water security, air quality and climate change, soil and water conservation, rural communities and economic growth, health and nutrition, wildlife habitat in agriculture and other areas of public concern.
Entomology is scientific study of insects, a branch of zoology. In past the term “insect” included study of terrestrial animals in other arthropod groups or other phyla like arachnids, myriapods, earthworms, land snails and slugs. It studies genetics, behavior, biomechanics, biochemistry, physiology, developmental biology, ecology, morphology and paleontology of insects. At 1.3 million described species, insects account for more than two-thirds of all known organisms. It plays part in criminal investigation and incorporates arthropods that affect human health.
Anthropology is study of human, a broad approach to understanding different aspects of human experience which we call holism by focusing on past through archaeology to see how human groups lived thousands of years ago and what was important to them. It also emphasizes what makes up biological bodies and genetics as well as bones, diet and health. Anthropologists study how groups of people have social relationships and get, prepare and share food. They work in their own societies looking at economics, health, education, law and policy. When trying to understand these complex issues, they keep in mind what they know about biology, culture, types of communication and how humans lived in the past.
Anthropologists are employed in colleges, universities, government agencies, non-government organizations (NGOs), businesses, health and human services departments. They contribute to interdisciplinary fields such as international studies and ethnic and gender studies. Outside the university, anthropologists work in government agencies, private businesses, community organizations, museums, independent research institutes, service organizations, media and others work as independent consultants and research staff for agencies such as Centres for Disease Control, UNESCO, World Health Organization and World Bank. Their work involves building research partnerships, assessing economic needs, evaluating policies, developing new educational programs, recording little-known community histories, providing health services, and social activities. They also address social and cultural consequences of natural disasters, equitable access to limited resources and human rights at the global level.
- Human Genetics
Human genetics studies inheritance in human. It encompasses classical genetics, cytogenetic, molecular genetics, biochemical genetics, genomics, population genetics, developmental genetics, clinical genetics and genetic counselling. Study of human genetics can be useful as it can answer the questions about human nature, understand diseases and development of effective disease treatment and understand genetics of human life.
Physiology is scientific study of normal mechanism and their interactions which run within living system focusing on how organisms, organ systems, organs, cells and biomolecules carry out chemical and physical functions that exist in living system. It is divided into animal physiology, human physiology, plant physiology, cellular physiology, microbial physiology, bacterial physiology and viral physiology. It is integrated natural disciplines such as chemistry and physics, coordinated homeostatic control mechanisms and continuous communication between cells.
Archaeology is study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artefacts, architecture, bio-facts or eco-facts and cultural landscapes. Archaeology is considered a sub-field of anthropology. It is a field distinct from the discipline of paleontology, the study of fossil remains and is particularly important for learning about pre-historic societies, for whom there may be no written records to study. Pre-history includes over 99% of the human past, from the Paleolithic until the advent of literacy in societies across the world. It has various goals range from understanding culture history to reconstructing past life ways to documenting and explaining changes in human societies through time.
- Population Science
Population Science is research discipline studies transitional impact on public health and clinical practice through the reduction in disease risk, incidence and death as well as improved quality of life for individuals. Health outcomes span physical, mental, behavioral and social health domains enhancing understanding of health. Population Science comes from Public Health, Medicine, Pharmacy, Economics, Demography and Urban Planning.
- Animal Science
Animal science studies biology of animals. Historically, degree was called animal husbandry and animals studied were livestock species, like cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry, and horses. Today, courses include companion animals like dogs and cats and many interesting species. It prepares aspirants for career opportunities in animal breeding, food and fiber production, nutrition, animal agribusiness, animal behavior and welfare.
- Animal Breeding & Genetics
Animal breeding & genetics is study of quantitative genetics including molecular genetics, immunogenetics and bioinformatics. It provides new scientific discoveries to age-old livestock production problems to help producers and consumers. It also addresses evaluation of genetic, value of livestock and selection for breeding animals with superior in growth rate, egg, meat, milk, wool production and with other desirable traits. It incorporates population genetics, quantitative genetics, statistics and molecular genomics.
- Poultry Science
Poultry are domesticated birds kept by humans for eggs they produce, their meat and their feathers. It also includes other birds that are slaughtered for their meat such as pigeons. It is the second most widely eaten type of meat globally and, along with eggs, provides nutritionally beneficial food containing high-quality protein accompanied by a low proportion of fat. It is also involved in basic biological research on genetics biochemistry and diseases. Poultry science concentrates on linking the scientific, economic and production areas of raising poultry. Courses in these programs include poultry judging, poultry anatomy, physiology, genetics, avian reproduction, nutrition and feed manufacturing. The degree in poultry science leads to serve in agribusiness, food science, nutrition, food production and veterinary medicine.
- Crop Production
Crop production is a branch of agriculture deals with growing crops for use as food and fiber includes grains, cotton, tobacco, fruits, vegetables, nuts and plants. Educational programs are available at associates, bachelors, masters and doctoral degree levels. Coursework includes harvesting, soil management, pest management, safety, plant structure, crop science, horticulture, plant genetics and marketing. Crop production can lead to careers in the field like Agricultural Science, Viticulture, Farming Science Programs and Agronomy.
- Crop Protection
Crop protection is science of managing crops’ diseases, weeds and other pests that damage agricultural crops and forestry. Agricultural crops include field crops (Maize, Wheat & Rice e), vegetable crops (Potatoes & Cabbages) and fruits. It encompasses Pesticide-based approaches such as herbicides, insecticides and fungicides, Biological pest control approaches such as cover crops, trap crops and beetle banks, Barrier-based approaches such as agro-textiles and bird netting, Animal psychology-based approaches such as bird scarers and Biotechnology-based approaches such as plant breeding and genetic modification.
- Plant Science
Plant science studies plant diversity, ecology, structure, reproduction and evolution with emphasis on flowering plants and history of life on earth. It studies plant growth, reproduction, evolution and adaptation as well as use of plants for food, fiber and ornamental purposes focusing on producing enough food for growing world population, breeding plants to tolerate heat and drought caused by climate change, developing sustainable cropping practices to produce healthful and nutritious food, investigating new methods to fight plant diseases, restoring damaged ecosystems to better support those who live there and conserving species for future generations.
- Renewable Energy
Renewable energy is collected from renewable resources which are naturally replenished on a human timescale such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves and geothermal heat. It provides energy in four areas 1) electricity generation, 2) air and water heating/cooling, 3) transportation and 4) rural (off-grid) energy services. Worldwide investments in renewable energy amounted to more than 286 billion US dollars in 2015 with countries like China and United States heavily investing in wind, hydro, solar and biofuels. Globally, there are an estimated 7.7 million jobs associated with the renewable energy industries.
Mineralogy is scientific study of chemistry, crystal structure and physical properties of minerals and mineralized artefacts. Specific studies within mineralogy includes process of mineral origin, classification of minerals and their geographical distribution as well as utilization. Mineralogists study minerals including solid substances, minerals of economic value such as metals like copper, aluminum, iron, gypsum and clays. They also study rocks and gems including their chemical and crystalline structures. They perform chemical tests on samples to identify them or determine their properties. They analyses, interpret and report mineralogical data.
- Peace & Conflict
Peace & conflict studies, identifies and analyses violent and non-violent behaviors with a view towards understanding processes which leads to more desirable human condition. Disciplines include philosophy, political science, geography, economics, psychology, sociology, international relations, history, anthropology, religious studies and gender studies. The aspect of religion, war and peace are evaluated when conflicts are to be analyzed and solved as religious dimensions play a central role in people´s actions and comprehensions.
Biostatistics is branch of statistics responsible for interpretation of scientific data generated in biology, public health and other health sciences. It encompasses design of biological experiments in medicine, pharmacy, agriculture and fishery that is exclusively concerned with medicine and health. It focuses on development of statistical methods for biomedical research involving HIV/AIDS, heart and lung disease, cancer, neuroimaging and other clinical disciplines.
- Environmental Science
Environmental science studies environmental parameters when devising plans, programs, policies, buildings and products. It has implications for industrial design of products, innovative automobiles, wind-electricity generators, solar-electric equipment and other kinds of equipment. Coursework includes basics of design, landscape planning, rural & urban development, ecology & hydrologic systems and water movement.
- Integrated Mountain Research
The study of mountains is interdisciplinary study of physical, chemical, geological and biological aspects of mountain regions and the study of lifestyles and economic concerns of people living in these regions. It is a research concentrates on Earth’s surface’s part covered by mountain landscapes focusing on mountains, their description and explanation of human-environment interaction and sustainable development of these areas.
Engineering is the application of mathematics, scientific, economic and practical knowledge in order to invent, innovate, design, build, maintain, research and improve structures, machines, tools, systems, components, materials, processes, solutions and organizations. The discipline of engineering is extremely broad and encompasses a range of specialized fields of engineering each with a more specific emphasis on particular areas of applied science, technology and types of application.
- Mechanical Engineering
Mechanical engineering applies principles of engineering, physics and materials science for designing, analysis, manufacturing and maintenance of mechanical systems. It involves design, production and operation of machinery. It requires understanding of mechanics, kinematics, thermodynamics, materials science, structural analysis and electricity. Mechanical engineers design manufacturing plants, industrial equipment, machinery, heating & cooling systems, transport systems, aircraft, watercraft, robotics, medical devices and weapons.
Mechatronics studies combination of mechanical engineering, electronics, computer engineering, telecommunications engineering, system engineering and control engineering to create more functional and adaptable products. Mechatronic or smart devices have become common in our technologically advanced society. Mechatronics engineers work in any company that develops and designs or manufactures and markets “smart” devices. Mechatronic devices have crept into everyday life. Mechatronic devices can be found in medicine and surgery, agriculture, buildings, homes, automobiles, toy and entertainment industry, intelligent aids for elderly and disabled.
- Electrical Engineering
Electrical engineering deals with study and application of electricity, electronics and electromagnetism and subdivided into a wide range of subfields including electronics, digital computers, power engineering, telecommunications, control systems, radio-frequency engineering, signal processing, instrumentation and microelectronics. Electrical engineers hold degree in electrical engineering or electronic engineering. Practicing engineers have professional certification and are members of a professional body. Such bodies include Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and Institution of Engineering and Technology (Professional Society) (IET).
- Aerospace Engineering
Aerospace engineering is concerned with development of aircraft and spacecraft and has two major and overlapping branches: 1) aeronautical engineering and 2) astronautical engineering. Avionics engineering deals with electrical side of aerospace engineering, aeronautical engineering is considered as original term for this field. Aerospace engineering is referred to as “rocket science”.
- Avionics Engineering
Avionics are electronic systems used in aircraft, artificial satellites and spacecraft. Avionic systems include communications, navigation, display and management of systems that fit to aircraft to perform individual functions. They may have implementation of Artificial Intelligence paradigms and development of new software-based controls for autonomous systems. It is a sub-discipline of Aeronautical Engineering. Students are provided exposure in the areas of electronics, aviation systems, communications, microwave, radar, antenna, guidance, navigation and controls. In addition, relevant interdisciplinary subjects from the fields of management sciences, Industrial Engineering and aerospace engineering are also blended into the avionics engineering program to ensure preparation of graduates for the multi-disciplinary nature of Aviation Electronics.
- Telecom/Networking Engineering
Telecommunications or telecoms engineering is discipline centered on electrical and computer engineering seeks to support and enhance telecommunication system. The work ranges from basic circuit design to strategic mass developments. A telecommunication engineer is responsible for designing and overseeing the installation of telecommunications equipment and facilities i.e. complex electronic switching systems, copper wire telephone facilities, optical fiber cabling, internet protocols data systems and terrestrial radio link systems.
- Software Engineering
Software engineering (SE) is the application of engineering to the development of software in systematic method. A software engineer is a person who applies principles of software engineering to the design, development, maintenance, testing and evaluation of software and system that make computers containing software work. Aspirants find software engineering in two contexts 1) computer science programs offering one or more software engineering courses as elements of computer science curriculum and 2) in separate software engineering programs. Both computer science and software engineering require a foundation in programming fundamentals and basic computer science theory.
- Architectural Engineering
Architectural engineering is a result of rapid technology advancement of industrial revolution. It is also known as building engineering and is application of engineering principles and technology to building design and construction. It combines the principles of design and engineering to create usable buildings. It applies mathematics and science to problem solving. Architectural engineers specialize in construction of buildings. They often work on-site with a team of engineers, architects and construction workers. Most architectural engineering jobs require a bachelor’s degree from an accredited program, but students seeking research and development positions may need to earn a graduate degree. Aspiring architectural engineers must pass two exams and gain the required work experience to become licensed professional engineers.
- Computer Engineering
Computer engineering integrates electrical engineering and computer science to develop computer hardware and software. They work for writing software and firmware for embedded microcontrollers, designing chips, designing analogue sensors, designing mixed signal circuit boards, designing operating systems and robotics research which relies on using digital systems to control and monitor electrical systems like motors, communications and sensors.
- Civil Engineering
Civil engineering deals with the design, construction and maintenance of physical and naturally built environment including works like roads, bridges, canals, dams and buildings. It is divided into a number of sub-disciplines. A civil engineer practices civil engineering; application of planning, designing, constructing, maintaining and operating infrastructures.
- Chemical Engineering
Chemical engineering applies physical sciences (Physics & Chemistry), life sciences (Microbiology & Biochemistry) together with applied mathematics and economics to produce, transform, transport and properly use chemicals, materials and energy. A chemical engineer designs large-scale processes that convert chemicals, raw materials, living cells, microorganisms and energy into useful forms and products. He applies and uses principles of chemical engineering include 1) design, manufacture and operation of plants and machinery in industrial chemical and related processes, 2) development of substances for products ranging from foods and beverages to cosmetics to cleaners to pharmaceutical ingredients, among many other products and 3) development of new technologies such as fuel cells, hydrogen power and nanotechnology as well as working in fields derived from chemical engineering.
- Petroleum & Gas Engineering
Petroleum engineering is concerned with the activities related to the production of hydrocarbons which can be either simple oil or natural gas. Petroleum engineering focuses on maximizing economic recovery of hydrocarbons from subsurface reservoirs and estimation of recoverable volume of this resource using a detailed understanding of the physical behavior of oil, water and gas within porous rock at high pressure. Geologists and petroleum engineers determine the way in which a reservoir is developed, depleted and have impact on economics. Petroleum engineering requires a good knowledge of geophysics, petroleum geology, formation evaluation, drilling, economics, reservoir simulation, reservoir engineering and well engineering.
- Industrial Engineering
Industrial engineering deals with the optimization of complex processes, systems or organizations. Industrial engineers work to eliminate waste of time, money, materials, man-hours, machine time, energy and other resources that do not generate value. According to the Institute of Industrial and Systems Engineers, they figure out how to do things better, engineering processes and systems that improve quality and productivity. Industrial engineering is concerned with the development, improvement, and implementation of integrated systems of people, money, knowledge, information, equipment, energy, materials, analysis and synthesis, as well as the mathematical, physical and social sciences together with the principles and methods of engineering design to specify, predict, and evaluate the results to be obtained from such systems or processes. While industrial engineering is a longstanding engineering discipline subject to (and eligible for) professional engineering licensure in most jurisdictions, its underlying concepts overlap considerably with certain business-oriented disciplines such as operations management.
- Textile Engineering
Textile manufacturing is a major industry. It is based on the conversion of fibre into yarn, yarn into fabric. These are then dyed or printed, fabricated into clothes. Different types of fibres are used to produce yarn. Cotton remains the most important natural fibres, so is treated in depth. There are many variable processes available at the spinning and fabric-forming stages coupled with the complexities of the finishing and colouration processes to the production of a wide range of products. There remains a large industry that uses hand techniques to achieve the same results.
- Geological Engineering
Engineering geology is the application of the geology to engineering study for the purpose of assuring that the geological factors regarding the location, design, construction, operation and maintenance of engineering works are recognized and accounted for. Engineering geologists provide geological and geotechnical recommendations, analysis, and design associated with human development and various types of structures. The realm of the engineering geologist is essentially in the area of earth-structure interactions, or investigation of how the earth or earth processes impact human made structures and human activities.
- Earth Quake Engineering
Earthquake engineering is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering that designs and analyses structures, such as buildings and bridges, with earthquakes in mind. Its overall goal is to make such structures more resistant to earthquakes. An earthquake or seismic engineer aims to construct structures that will not be damaged in minor shaking and will avoid serious damage or collapse in a major earthquake. Earthquake engineering is the scientific field concerned with protecting society, the natural environment, and the man-made environment from earthquakes by limiting the seismic risk to socio-economically acceptable levels. Traditionally, it has been narrowly defined as the study of the behavior of structures and geo-structures subject to seismic loading; it is considered as a subset of structural engineering, geotechnical engineering, mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, applied physics, etc. However, the tremendous costs experienced in recent earthquakes have led to an expansion of its scope to encompass disciplines from the wider field of civil engineering, mechanical engineering and from the social sciences, especially sociology, political science, economics and finance. A properly engineered structure does not necessarily have to be extremely strong or expensive. It has to be properly designed to withstand the seismic effects while sustaining an acceptable level of damage.
- Automotive & Marine Engineering
In marine program, aspirants have opportunity to learn about marine systems, controls and equipment through lab work and class instruction. Students may also get to work with oceanographers aboard water vessels as part of their study. Those interested in marine may begin their education by enrolling in an associate’s degree program. Students looking to pursue a deeper level of skill in the construction and design of water vessels can pursue a bachelor’s degree which is available in universities. Prerequisites for these programs include a high school certificate or its equivalent. Associate degree takes two years to complete while bachelor degree program takes four years. Some online courses and programs in marine technology are available.
Marine degree programs provide an overview of aquatic transportation, equipment and machinery. To become skilled in marine engineering, students may participate in motor and electricity labs and receive guidance on how to inspect boats, ships and watercrafts. These programs are available at technology institutes, vocational schools and community colleges. Coursework may combine traditional and modern occupational, mechanical and technical marine instruction. Studies usually include professional research and writing, social speaking and general studies like algebra, trigonometry, history and literature.
- Nuclear Engineering
Nuclear Engineering prepares aspirants for career in engineering of low-energy nuclear physics includes design, analysis and operation of radiation systems and their applications, such as fission reactors and accelerators, and biomedical uses. Nuclear engineering is the most integrated of the engineering disciplines. The components of nuclear systems (Medical Imaging, Nuclear Fission Reactors, Ultrasensitive Contraband Detectors & Fusion Reactors) must all be understood as well as how they relate to one another. The degree in nuclear science and engineering develops the fundamentals of nuclear processes their production, interactions, and radiation measurements. These studies bring the student all the way to the design phase of nuclear-based systems, stressing social, health, and energy and security impacts. Studies also incorporate computer methods, thermal-fluid engineering, and electronics critical tools for a nuclear engineering career.
A five-year program offers an opportunity to earn a Bachelor of Science and a Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering simultaneously. Beyond these studies, students can pursue a Ph.D. and work in research or as university professors. The basic Bachelor of Science degree in Nuclear Engineering develops practical skills through hands-on education. Laboratory courses cover radiation physics, measurement, and protection.
- Machinery & Power Engineering
Energy engineering addresses the development of alternative sources of energy and conventional fossil fuels by incorporating elements of old fuel science with focus on renewable energy, agro-energy and professional electives on business, finance and management. The program prepares aspirants to be successful in advancing the technology and management of energy; innovators and entrepreneurs in the energy sector; and educators, practicing engineers and national leaders in the energy and associated environmental health and safety, policy and economic fields.
Aviation or air transport refers to the activities surrounding mechanical flight and the aircraft industry. Aircraft includes fixed-wing and rotary-wing types, morphable wings, wing-less lifting bodies as well as lighter than air craft such as balloons and airships. General aviation includes all non-scheduled civil flying, both private and commercial. It may include business flights, air charter, private aviation, flight training, ballooning, parachuting, gliding, hang gliding, aerial photography, foot-launched powered hang gliders, air ambulance, crop dusting, charter flights, traffic reporting, police air patrols and forest fire fighting. Each country regulates aviation differently, but general aviation usually falls under different regulations depending on whether it is private or commercial and on the type of equipment involved. Many small aircraft manufacturers serve the general aviation market, with a focus on private aviation and flight training. The most important recent developments for small aircraft have been introduced the advanced avionics that were formerly found only in large airliners and the introduction of composite materials to make small aircraft lighter and faster.
- Mining Engineering
Mining engineering applies science and technology to the extraction of minerals from earth. It is associated with other disciplines such as mineral processing, exploration, excavation, geology, metallurgy, geotechnical engineering and surveying. A mining engineer manages phases of mining operations from exploration and discovery of the mineral resource, through feasibility study, mine design, development of plans, production and operations to mine closure. With the process of mineral extraction, some amount of waste and uneconomic material are generated which are the primary source of pollution in the vicinity of mines. Mining activities by their nature cause a disturbance of the natural environment and around which the minerals are located. Mining engineers must therefore be concerned not only with the production and processing of mineral commodities, but also with the mitigation of damage to the environment both during and after mining as a result of the change in the mining area. Such industries go through stringent laws to control the pollution and damage caused to the environment and are periodically governed by the concerned departments.
- Polymer Engineering
Polymer engineering studies the designs, analyses and modifies polymer materials covering the aspects of petrochemical industry, polymerization, structure & characterization of polymers, properties of polymers, compounding and processing of polymers and description of major polymers, structure property relations and applications. The history of human use of polymers has been long since the mid-19th century, when it entered the chemical modification of natural polymers, 1839 C. Goodyear has found a critical advance in the research of rubber vulcanization, which has turned natural rubber into a practical engineering material. In 1870, J. W. Hyatt uses camphor to plasticize nitrocellulose to make nitrocellulose plastics industrial. 1907 L. Baekeland reported the synthesis of the first thermosetting phenolic resin, which was industrialized in the 1920s, the first synthetic plastic product. In 1920, H. Standinger proposed that polymers are long-chain molecules that are connected by structural units through common covalent bonds. This conclusion laid the foundation for the establishment of modern polymer science.
- Coal Technology
Coal technology is collection of technologies being developed in attempts to lessen the negative environmental impact of coal energy generation and to mitigate worldwide climate change. When coal is used as a fuel source, the gaseous emissions generated by the thermal decomposition of the coal include sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), mercury and other chemical by-products that vary depending on the type of the coal being used. These emissions have been established to have a negative impact on the environment and human health, contributing to acid rain, lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. As a result, clean coal technologies are being developed to remove or reduce pollutant emissions to the atmosphere. Some of the techniques that would be used to accomplish this include chemically washing minerals and impurities from the coal, gasification, improved technology for treating flue gases to remove pollutants to increasingly stringent levels and at higher efficiency, carbon capture and storage technologies to capture the carbon dioxide from the flue gas and dewatering lower rank coals (brown coals) to improve the calorific value, and thus the efficiency of the conversion into electricity. Concerns exist regarding the economic viability of these technologies and the timeframe of delivery, potentially high hidden economic costs in terms of social and environmental damage, and the costs and viability of disposing of removed carbon and other toxic matter.
- Hydrology Engineering
Hydrology engineering is the scientific study of the movement, distribution and quality of water on Earth and other planets including the water cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability. A hydrologist, working within the fields of earth or environmental science, physical geography, geology or civil and environmental engineering. By using various analytical methods and scientific techniques, they collect and analyse data to help solve water related problems such as environmental preservation, natural disasters and water management.
Hydrology subdivides into surface water hydrology, groundwater hydrology (hydrogeology) and marine hydrology. Domains of hydrology include hydrometeorology, surface hydrology, hydrogeology, drainage-basin management and water quality, where water plays the central role. Oceanography and meteorology are not included because water is only one of many important aspects within those fields. Hydrological research can inform environmental engineering, policy and planning.
- Hydropower Engineering
Hydropower engineering provides mechanical and electrical engineering and project management services to the hydropower industry. Hydropower engineering cover key aspects of hydropower generation including investigation of operational and maintenance problems, plant performance assessments, site supervision, dam safety reviews and assistance with refurbishment and hydro development projects. Hydropower Engineering also offers specialised hydropower related training courses. Hydropower or waterpower is power derived from the energy of falling water or fast running water which may be harnessed for useful purposes. Since ancient times, hydropower from many kinds of watermills has been used as a renewable energy source for irrigation and the operation of various mechanical devices, such as gristmills, sawmills, textile mills, trip hammers, dock cranes, domestic lifts, and ore mills. A trompe which produces compressed air from falling water, is sometimes used to power other machinery at a distance.
- Hydraulics Engineering
Hydraulic engineering as a sub-discipline of civil engineering is concerned with the flow and conveyance of fluids, principally water and sewage. One feature of these systems is the extensive use of gravity as the motive force to cause the movement of the fluids. This area of civil engineering is intimately related to the design of bridges, dams, channels, canals, and levees, and to both sanitary and environmental engineering.
Hydraulic engineering is the application of the principles of fluid mechanics to problems dealing with the collection, storage, control, transport, regulation, measurement, and use of water. Before beginning a hydraulic engineering project, one must figure out how much water is involved. The hydraulic engineer is concerned with the transport of sediment by the river, the interaction of the water with its alluvial boundary, and the occurrence of scour and deposition. The hydraulic engineer actually develops conceptual designs for the various features which interact with water such as spillways and outlet works for dams, culverts for highways, canals and related structures for irrigation projects, and cooling-water facilities for thermal power plants.
- Corrosion Engineering
Corrosion engineering is far-reaching field including energy infrastructure, transportation systems and national defense. It installs, maintains, inspects, troubleshoots facilities and utilizes chemistry, electricity, physics, metallurgy and other sciences to prevent or control corrosion damage. Corrosion control therefore apply these sciences to control the chemical and mechanical aspects that are involved in the deterioration of properties which we call “Corrosion.”
This program prepares aspirants for entry-level employment as Corrosion Technician in the fields of manufacturing, oil & gas, government, pipeline maintenance and general corrosion management.
There are three programs to study the corrosion engineering. The one-year Certificate of Applied Science (CAS) and the two-year Associate of Applied Science (AAS) prepare students to sit for National Associate of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) exams. The AAS option also includes a capstone project and internship experience. Additionally, students also have the option of earning a Certificate of Technical Studies (CTS) after each semester by completing program-specific courses. This allows students to earn credential after just one semester and allows for a more skilled workforce.
- Bio-medical Engineering
Biomedical engineering or medical engineering is the application of engineering principles to develop concepts of medicine and biology for healthcare purposes (Diagnostic & Therapeutic). It seeks to close the gap between engineering and medicine, combining the design and problem-solving skills of engineering with medical biological sciences to advance healthcare treatment including diagnosis, monitoring and therapy. Biomedical engineering applications include development of biocompatible prostheses, various diagnostic and therapeutic medical devices ranging from clinical equipment to micro-implants, common imaging equipment such as MRIs and EKG/ECGs, regenerative tissue growth, pharmaceutical drugs and therapeutic biologicals.
- Bioinformatics Engineering
Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field that develops methods and software for understanding biological data. It encompasses science, bioinformatics combines computer science, statistics, mathematics and engineering to analyze and interpret biological data. It is considered both an umbrella term for body of biological studies that use computer programming as part of methodology as well as a reference to specific analysis “pipelines” repeatedly used, in the field of genomics. Common uses of bioinformatics include the identification of genes and nucleotides (SNPs). Often, such identification is made with the aim of better understanding the genetic basis of disease, unique adaptations and desirable properties especially in agricultural species or differences between populations.
Biomechanics is study of structure and function of mechanical aspects of biological systems at any level from whole organisms to organs, cells and cell organelles, using the methods of mechanics.
- Biomaterials Engineering
A biomaterials engineering is study of matter, surface or construct that interacts with living systems and as a science, it is about fifty years old. It has experienced steady and strong growth over its history, with many companies investing large amounts of money into the development of new products. Biomaterials science encompasses elements of medicine, biology, chemistry, tissue engineering and materials science.
- Biomedical Optics / Tissue Engineering
It is interaction of biological tissue, light and how it can be exploited for sensing, imaging and treatment. It is a major segment of biotechnology which overlaps significantly with BME. One of the goals of tissue engineering is to create artificial organs for patients that need organ transplants. Biomedical engineers are currently researching methods of creating such organs. Researchers have grown solid jawbones and tracheas from human stem cells towards this end. Several artificial urinary bladders have been grown in laboratories and transplanted successfully into human patients. Bioartificial organs, which use both synthetic and biological component, are also focus area in research, such as with hepatic assist devices that use liver cells within an artificial bioreactor construct.
- Genetic Engineering
Genetic engineering, DNA technology, genetic manipulation (GM) and gene splicing are applied to direct manipulation of genes. Unlike traditional breeding, an indirect method of genetic manipulation, genetic engineering utilizes modern tools such as molecular cloning and transformation to directly alter the structure and characteristics of target genes. Genetic engineering techniques have found success in numerous applications. Some examples include the improvement of crop technology, the manufacture of synthetic human insulin through the use of modified bacteria, the manufacture of erythropoietin in hamster ovary cells and the production of new types of experimental mice such as cancer mouse for research.
- Neural Engineering
Neural engineering also known as neuro-engineering uses engineering techniques to understand, repair, replace and enhance neural systems. Neural engineers are uniquely qualified to solve design problems at interface of living neural tissue and non-living constructs.
- Pharmaceutical Engineering
Pharmaceutical engineering is an interdisciplinary science that includes drug engineering, novel drug delivery and targeting, pharmaceutical technology, unit operations of chemical engineering and pharmaceutical analysis. It may be deemed as a part of pharmacy due to its focus on the use of technology on chemical agents in providing better medicinal treatment.
- Clinical Engineering
Clinical engineering deals with actual implementation of medical equipment and technologies in hospitals settings including training and supervising biomedical equipment technicians, selecting technological products and services as well as logistically managing their implementation, working with governmental regulators on inspections/audits and serving as technological consultants for other hospital staff e.g. physicians, administrators and I.T. personals. Clinical engineers also advise and collaborate with medical device producers regarding prospective design improvements based on clinical experiences as well as monitor the progression of the state of the art so as to redirect procurement patterns accordingly.
Their inherent focus on practical implementation of technology has tended to keep them oriented more towards incremental-level redesigns and reconfigurations as opposed to revolutionary research & development or ideas that would be many years from clinical adoption. However, there is a growing effort to expand this time-horizon over which clinical engineers can influence the trajectory of biomedical innovation. They form “bridge” between primary designers and the end-users, by combining the perspectives of being both 1) close to the point-of-use, and 2) trained in product and process engineering.
- Rehabilitation Engineering
Rehabilitation engineering is systematic application of engineering sciences to design, develop, adapt, test, evaluate, apply and distribute technological solutions to problems confronted by individuals with disabilities. Functional areas addressed through rehabilitation engineering include mobility, communication, hearing, vision, cognition and activities associated with employment, independent living, education and integration into the community.
The rehabilitation process for people with disabilities often entails the design of assistive devices such as walking aids intended to promote inclusion of their users into the mainstream of society, commerce and recreation.
- Transportation Engineering
Transportation engineering is application of technology and scientific principles to planning, functional design, operation and management of facilities for mode of transportation in order to provide for safe, efficient, rapid, comfortable, convenient, economical and environmentally compatible movement of people and goods transport.
Technical forecasting of passenger travel involves an urban transportation planning model, requiring estimation of trip generation, trip distribution, mode choice and route assignment (Streets or Routes That are Being Used).
Transportation engineering involves planning, design, construction, maintenance and operation of transportation facilities. The facilities support air, highway, railroad, pipeline, water and even space transportation. The design aspects of transportation engineering include the sizing of transportation facilities (How Many Lanes or How Much Capacity Facility Has), determining the materials and thickness used in pavement designing the geometry (Vertical and Horizontal Alignment) of the roadway or track.
Railway engineers manage the design, construction and operation of railroads and mass transit systems that use a fixed guideway such as light rail or monorails. Typical tasks include determining horizontal and vertical alignment design, station location and design, and construction cost estimating. Railroad engineers can also move into the specialized field of train dispatching which focuses on train movement control.
Port and harbor engineers handle the design, construction, and operation of ports, harbors, canals, and other maritime facilities.
Airport engineers design and construct airports. Airport engineers must account for the impacts and demands of aircraft in their design of airport facilities. These engineers must use the analysis of predominant wind direction to determine runway orientation, determine the size of runway border and safety areas, different wing tip to wing tip clearances for all gates and must designate the clear zones in the entire port.
- Geotechnical Engineering
Geotechnical engineering is concerned with engineering behavior of earth materials. It is important in civil engineering and also helps in applications in military, mining, petroleum and other engineering disciplines concerned with construction occurring on surface or within ground. Geotechnical engineering uses principles of soil mechanics and rock mechanics to investigate subsurface conditions and materials; determine relevant physical/mechanical and chemical properties of these materials; evaluate stability of natural slopes and man-made soil deposits; assess risks posed by site conditions; design earthworks and structure foundations; and monitor site conditions, earthwork and foundation construction.
A geotechnical engineering determines type of foundations, earthworks and/or pavement subgrades required for intended man-made structures to be built.
Geotechnical engineering is also related to coastal and ocean engineering. Coastal engineering can involve the design and construction of wharves, marinas and jetties. Ocean engineering can involve foundation and anchor systems for offshore structures such as oil platforms.
- City/Urban & Regional Planning
Urban & regional planning develops land use plans and programs that help create communities, accommodate population growth and revitalize physical facilities in towns, cities, counties, and metropolitan areas. Urban planning is a technical and political process concerned with development and design of land use and built environment including air, water and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas such as transportation, communications and distribution networks. Urban planning deals with physical layout of human settlements. The primary concern is public welfare includes considerations of efficiency, sanitation, protection and use of the environment as well as effects on social and economic activities. It is closely related to the field of urban design and some urban planners provide designs for streets, parks, buildings and other urban areas. Urban planning is also referred to as urban and regional planning, regional planning, town planning, city planning, rural planning, urban development or some combination in various areas worldwide.
- Water Resources Engineering
Water resource engineering is a specific kind of civil engineering that involves the design of new systems and equipment to manage human water resources. Some of the areas are water treatment facilities, underground wells and natural springs. Water resource engineers develop new equipment and systems for water resource management facilities. The systems that they create ensure that citizens are provided with a continuous supply of clean, uncontaminated water for drinking, living and recreational purposes. They not only design these water management systems, but often oversee the construction and maintenance of these systems as well. An increasing population and continuous need for more water stimulates this fast-growing industry. A Bachelor degree and official certification are required to pursue this career, though many water resource engineers also go on to pursue their Masters Degrees.
- Energy & Environment Engineering
Energy & environmental engineering seeks to efficiently use energy and to maintain the environment. Energy engineers require knowledge across many disciplines. Careers include work in built environment, renewable and traditional energy industries. In this area, solar radiation is important and must be understood. Solar radiation affects the Earth’s weather and daylight available. This affects not only the Earth’s environment but also the smaller internal environments which we create. Energy engineering requires at least an understanding of mechanics, thermodynamics, mathematics, materials, stoichiometry, electrical machines, manufacturing processes and energy systems. Environmental engineering can be branched into two main areas: internal environments and outdoor environments.
- Metallurgy & Material Engineering
Metallurgical & materials engineering is science and technology of producing, processing and giving proper shape to metals and alloys and other engineering materials having desired properties through economically viable process. Metallurgy & Materials Engineering is field of engineering that circumscribes the spectrum of materials, types and how to use them in manufacturing. It is the technology of producing, processing and giving proper shape to metals and alloys and other engineering materials having desired properties through economically viable process.
Metallurgy & materials engineering offers studies in subjects mineral dressing, Metallurgical Thermodynamics and Kinetics, Iron Making Technology, Steel Making Technology, Physical Metallurgy, Science of Engineering Materials, Inspection & Testing of Materials, Heat treatment and Phase Transformation, Corrosion & Protection, Manufacturing Technology and Engineering Fracture Mechanics. However other related subjects also include in the course to make it versatile and intractable with other fields of Engineering.
- Quality & Technology Management
Quality is not only about developing products and services which result in more satisfied customers and increased profitability. It is also about developing and improving the activities internally within the organisations. The ever-changing needs and expectations of customers together with increased international competition make companies and organisations increase their focus on quality management. Quality technology or quality management is a relatively new subject field which has raised interest in the business world and among public organisations. Examples of areas that are included in quality technology are leadership and total quality management, customer relations and satisfaction and processes and product development (goods and services). Knowledge in quality technology is to be regarded as independent of industry and is therefore relevant within all types of education.
- Urban & Infrastructure Engineering
Municipal engineering is concerned with municipal infrastructure. This involves specifying, designing, constructing and maintaining streets, sidewalks, water supply networks, sewers, street lighting, municipal solid waste management and disposal, storage depots for various bulk materials used for maintenance and public works (salt, sand, etc.), public parks and cycling infrastructure. In the case of underground utility networks, it may also include the civil portion (Conduits and Access Chambers) of the local distribution networks of electrical and telecommunications services. It can also include the optimizing of garbage collection and bus service networks. Some of these disciplines overlap with other civil engineering specialties, however municipal engineering focuses on the coordination of these infrastructure networks and services, as they are often built simultaneously and managed by the same municipal authority.
Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery is abbreviated in many ways, e.g. MBBS, MB ChB, MB BCh, MB BChir (Cantab), BM BCh (Oxon), BMBS), are the two first professional degrees in medicine and surgery awarded upon graduation from medical school by universities in countries. The historical degree nomenclature suggests that they are two separate undergraduate degrees; however, in practice, they are usually treated as one and conferred together and may also be awarded at graduate-level medical schools. In countries that follow the system in the United States, the equivalent medical degree is awarded as Doctor of Medicine (MD) or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (DO).
Pharmacy is science and technique of preparing, dispensing and reviewing of drugs and providing additional clinical services. It is a health profession that links health sciences with pharmaceutical sciences and aims to ensure safe, effective and affordable use of drugs. The professional practice is becoming more clinically oriented as most of the drugs are now manufactured by pharmaceutical industries. Based on the setting, the pharmacy is classified as a community or institutional pharmacy. Providing direct patient care in the community of institutional pharmacies are considered clinical pharmacy.
The scope of pharmacy practice includes more traditional roles such as compounding and dispensing medications and it also includes more modern services related to healthcare, including clinical services, reviewing medications for safety and efficacy and providing drug information. Pharmacists, therefore, are the experts on drug therapy and are the primary health professionals who optimize use of medication for the benefit of the patients. Pharmacology is considered as the 4th discipline of pharmacy. Although pharmacology is essential to the study of pharmacy, it is not specific to pharmacy.
Pharmacists are healthcare professionals with specialised education and training who perform various roles to ensure optimal health outcomes for their patients through the quality use of medicines. Pharmacists may also be small business proprietors, owning the pharmacy in which they practice. Since pharmacists know about the mode of action of a particular drug, and its metabolism and physiological effects on the human body in great detail, they play an important role in optimisation of a drug treatment for an individual.
Pharmacy technicians support the work of pharmacists and other health professionals by performing a variety of pharmacy related functions, including dispensing prescription drugs and other medical devices to patients and instructing on their use. They may also perform administrative duties in pharmaceutical practice, such as reviewing prescription requests with medic’s offices and insurance companies to ensure correct medications are provided and payment is received.
Veterinary pharmacies, sometimes called animal pharmacies, may fall in the category of hospital pharmacy, retail pharmacy or mail-order pharmacy. Veterinary pharmacies stock different varieties and different strengths of medications to fulfil the pharmaceutical needs of animals. Because the needs of animals, as well as the regulations on veterinary medicine, are often very different from those related to people, veterinary pharmacy is often kept separate from regular pharmacies.
Nuclear pharmacy focuses on preparing radioactive materials for diagnostic tests and for treating certain diseases. Nuclear pharmacists undergo additional training specific to handling radioactive materials and unlike in community and hospital pharmacies, nuclear pharmacists typically do not interact directly with patients.
Military pharmacy is an entirely different working environment due to the fact that technicians perform most duties that in a civilian sector would be illegal. State laws of Technician patient counseling and medication checking by a pharmacist do not apply.
Pharmacy informatics is the combination of pharmacy practice science and applied information science. Pharmacy informaticists work in many practice areas of pharmacy, however, they may also work in information technology departments or for healthcare information technology vendor companies. As a practice area and specialist domain, pharmacy informatics is growing quickly to meet the needs of major national and international patient information projects and health system interoperability goals. Pharmacists in this area are trained to participate in medication management system development, deployment and optimization.
Veterinary medicine deals with prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease, disorder and injury in animals. The scope of veterinary medicine is wide, covering all animal species, both domesticated and wild with a wide range of conditions which can affect different species. It helps human health through the monitoring and control of zoonotic disease (Infectious Disease Transmitted from Animals to Humans), food safety and indirectly through human applications from basic medical research. They also help to maintain food supply through livestock health monitoring and treatment and mental health by keeping pets healthy and long living. Veterinary scientists often collaborate with epidemiologists and other health or natural scientists depending on type of work. Ethically, veterinarians are usually obliged to look after animal welfare.
- Physical Therapy
Physical therapy (PT) also known as physiotherapy, is one of allied health professions by using evidence based kinesiology, electrotherapy, shockwave modality, exercise prescription, joint mobilization and health education, treats conditions such as chronic or acute pain, soft tissue injuries, cartilage damage, arthritis, gait disorders and physical impairments typically of musculoskeletal, cardiopulmonary, neurological and endocrinological origins. Physical therapy is used to improve a patient’s physical functions through physical examination, diagnosis, prognosis, physical intervention, rehabilitation and patient education. It is practiced by physical therapists.
A dentist, also known as a dental surgeon, is a surgeon who specializes in dentistry, the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of diseases and conditions of the oral cavity. The dentist’s supporting team aids in providing oral health services. The dental team includes dental assistants, dental hygienists, dental technicians, and in some states, dental therapists.
- Optometry & Orthotics
The profession of optometry is dedicated to the prevention of blindness and enhancement of visual function. Optometrists / Orthoptists are the eye healthcare professionals recognized across the globe who may practice independently, licensed primary eye care providers offering a wide range of vision care services. As primary eye care providers, optometrists / orthoptists are an integral part of the health care team and an entry point into the health care system.
Optometrists / Orthoptists examine, diagnose, treat and manage diseases and disorders of the eye as well as diagnose and refer patients to other healthcare providers for a variety of systemic and neurological conditions that are frequently diagnosed during the primary eye examination.
Audiology studies hearing, balance and related disorders. Audiologists treat those with hearing loss and proactively prevent related damage by employing various testing strategies (Behavioral Hearing Tests, Otoacoustic Emission Measurements and Electrophysiologic Tests). If hearing loss is identified, audiologists determine which portions of hearing (High, Middle or Low Frequencies) are affected, to what degree (Severity of Loss) and where lesion causing the hearing loss is found (Outer Ear, Middle Ear, Inner Ear, Auditory Nerve and/or Central Nervous System). If audiologist determines hearing loss or vestibular abnormality is present he/she will provide recommendations for interventions or rehabilitation (Hearing Aids, Cochlear Implants & Appropriate Medical Referrals). In addition to diagnosing audiologic and vestibular pathologies, audiologists can also specialize in rehabilitation of tinnitus, hyperacusis, misophonia, auditory processing disorders, cochlear implant use and/or hearing aid use. Audiologists can provide hearing health care from birth to end-of-life.
- Dental Technology
A dental technologist (Dental Laboratory Technician) is member of dental team who, upon prescription of dental clinician, constructs custom-made restorative and dental appliances. There are four majors within dental technology. These are fixed prosthesis including crowns, bridges and implants, removable prosthesis including dentures and removable partial dentures, maxillofacial prosthesis including ocular prosthesis and craniofacial prosthesis and orthodontics and auxiliaries, including orthodontic appliances and mouth guards.
- Cardiac Perfusion
Cardiovascular perfusion is the science of providing extracorporeal circulation in order to artificially support and temporarily replace patient’s respiratory and circulatory systems. Clinical Perfusionists are expert cardiac surgical team and provide lifesaving support to patients requiring additional corporeal circulation including but not limited to major cardiothoracic, vascular and transplant surgeries as well as support of critically-ill patient.
Cardiovascular Perfusionists are important members of the open-heart surgical team whose primary role is to conduct cardiopulmonary bypass using a heart-lung machine and other ancillary equipment. They closely monitor the patient’s blood flow and other vital signs during open heart surgery and are also responsible for administering intravenous fluids, blood products and anesthetic drugs.
Perfusionists are also experts of other life support equipment such as ventricular assist devices and intra-aortic balloon pumps. The primary aim of Cardiac Perfusion Technology is to academically and clinically prepare the cardiovascular perfusion students for professional practice. The curriculum focuses on developing a strong knowledge base in cardiothoracic anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology as well as pharmacology, fatal and neonatal cardiac development and perfusion science.
- Occupational Therapy
Occupational therapy (OT) is use of assessment and intervention to develop, recover or maintain meaningful activities or occupations of individuals, groups or communities. It is an allied health profession performed by occupational therapists and Occupational Therapy Assistants. OTs often work with people with mental health problems, disabilities, injuries or impairments.
Occupational therapist helps people across their lifespan participate in the things they want and need to do through the therapeutic use of everyday activities (occupations). Common occupational therapy interventions include helping children with disabilities to participate fully in school and social situations, injury rehabilitation and providing supports for older adults experiencing physical and cognitive changes.
Anatomy is a natural science deals with structural organization of living things. It is an old science, having its beginnings in prehistoric times. Anatomy is inherently tied to developmental biology, embryology, comparative anatomy, evolutionary biology and phylogeny as these are the processes by which anatomy is generated over immediate (embryology) and long (evolution) timescales. Anatomy and physiology which study (respectively) the structure and function of organisms and their parts, make a natural pair of related disciplines and they are often studied together. Human anatomy is one of the essential basic sciences that are applied in medicine.
The discipline of anatomy is divided into macroscopic and microscopic anatomy. Macroscopic anatomy, or gross anatomy, is the examination of an animal’s body parts using unaided eyesight. Gross anatomy also includes the branch of superficial anatomy. Microscopic anatomy involves the use of optical instruments in the study of the tissues of various structures, known as histology, and also in the study of cells.
- Forensic Medicine
Forensic medicine provides unique educational resources for medical students and others in forensic medicine and forensic pathology. Forensic pathology is pathology focuses on determining the cause of death by examining a corpse. A post mortem is performed by medical examiner, usually during the investigation of criminal law cases and civil law cases in some jurisdictions. Coroners and medical examiners are also frequently asked to confirm the identity of a corpse. Also see forensic medicine. The forensic pathologist performs autopsies/post-mortem examinations to determine the cause of death.
Hematology is branch of medicine concerned with the study of the cause, prognosis, treatment and prevention of diseases related to blood. It involves treating diseases that affect the production of blood and its components, such as blood cells, hemoglobin, blood proteins, bone marrow, platelets, blood vessels, spleen and mechanism of coagulation. Such diseases might include hemophilia, blood clots, other bleeding disorders and blood cancers such as leukemia, multiple myeloma, and lymphoma. The laboratory work that goes into the study of blood is frequently performed by a medical technologist or medical laboratory scientist.
Pharmacology is concerned with study of drug or medication where drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural or endogenous molecule which exerts biochemical or physiological effect on cell, tissue, organ or organism. More specifically, it is study of interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function.
The field encompasses drug composition and properties, synthesis and drug design, molecular and cellular mechanisms, organ/systems mechanisms, signal transduction/cellular communication, molecular diagnostics, interactions, toxicology, chemical biology, therapy, medical applications and antipathogenic capabilities. The two main areas of pharmacology are pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. Pharmacodynamics studies the effects of a drug on biological systems, and Pharmacokinetics studies the effects of biological systems on a drug. In broad terms, pharmacodynamics discusses chemicals with biological receptors and pharmacokinetics discusses absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of chemicals from the biological systems.
Nursing is a profession within healthcare sector focused on care of individuals, families and communities so they may attain, maintain or recover optimal health and quality of life. Nurses may be differentiated from other healthcare providers by their approach to patient care, training and scope of practice. Many nurses provide care within the ordering scope of physicians and this traditional role has shaped the public image of nurses as care providers. However, nurse practitioners are permitted by most jurisdictions to practice independently in a variety of settings. Since the postwar period, nurse education has undergone a process of diversification towards advanced and specialized credentials, and many of the traditional regulations and provider roles are changing.
Radiology is medical specialty that uses medical imaging to diagnose and treat diseases within human body. A variety of imaging techniques such as X-ray radiography, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), nuclear medicine including positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are used to diagnose or treat diseases. Interventional radiology is the performance of usually minimally invasive medical procedures with the guidance of imaging technologies such as X-ray radiography, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), nuclear medicine including positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
The modern practice of radiology involves several different healthcare professions working as a team. The radiologist is a medical doctor who has completed the appropriate post-graduate training and interprets medical images, communicates these findings to other physicians by means of a report or verbally, and uses imaging to perform minimally invasive medical procedures. The nurse is involved in the care of patients before and after imaging or procedures, including administration of medications, monitoring of vital signs and monitoring of sedated patients.
Anaesthesia is a state of controlled, temporary loss of sensation or awareness that is induced for medical purposes. It may include analgesia (Relief or Prevention from Pain), paralysis (Muscle Relaxation), amnesia (Loss of Memory) or unconsciousness. A patient under the effects of anaesthetic drugs is referred to as being anesthetized.
The risks of complications during or after anaesthesia are often difficult to separate from those of the procedure for which anaesthesia is being administered, but in the main they are related to three factors: the health of the patient, the complexity (Stress) of the procedure itself, and the anaesthetic technique. Of these factors, the health of the patient has the greatest impact.
- Field Epidemiology
Although epidemiologists work in field settings in different contexts, term field epidemiology describes investigations initiated in response to urgent public health problems. It involves the application of epidemiologic methods to unexpected health problems when a rapid, on-site investigation is necessary for timely intervention. It is how epidemics and outbreaks are investigated and it is a tool for implementing measures to protect and improve the health of the public. Its methods are designed to answer specific epidemiologic questions in order to plan, implement and/or evaluate public health interventions. The task of field epidemiologist is not complete until the results of study have been clearly communicated timely in manner to those who need to know and an intervention made to improve the health of the people.
Ophthalmology deals with diagnosis and treatment of eye disorders. The credentials include degree in medicine, followed by additional four to five years of ophthalmology residency training. Ophthalmology residency training programs require one-year pre-residency training in internal medicine, pediatrics or general surgery. Additional specialty training can be sought in a particular aspect of eye pathology. Ophthalmologists are allowed to use medications to treat eye diseases, implement laser therapy, and perform surgery when needed. Ophthalmologists may participate in academic research on the diagnosis and treatment for eye disorders.
- Chemical Pathology
Clinical chemistry, also known as chemical pathology, clinical biochemistry or medical biochemistry, is area of chemistry concerned with analysis of bodily fluids for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. There are many blood tests and clinical urine tests with extensive diagnostic capabilities. Most current laboratories are now highly automated to accommodate the high workload typical of a hospital laboratory. Tests performed are closely monitored and quality controlled.
All biochemical tests come under chemical pathology. These are performed on any kind of body fluid, but mostly on serum or plasma. Serum is the yellow watery part of blood that is left after blood has been allowed to clot and all blood cells have been removed. This is most easily done by centrifugation, which packs the denser blood cells and platelets to the bottom of the centrifuge tube, leaving the liquid serum fraction resting above the packed cells. This initial step before analysis has recently been included in instruments that operate on the “integrated system” principle. Plasma is in essence the same as serum, but is obtained by centrifuging the blood without clotting. Plasma is obtained by centrifugation before clotting occurs. The type of test required dictates what type of sample is used. A large medical laboratory will accept samples for up to about 700 different kinds of tests. Even the largest of laboratories rarely do all these tests themselves, and some must be referred to other labs.
Pathology is study of causes and effects of disease or injury. However, when used in context of modern medical treatment, it refers to processes and tests which run within contemporary medical field which includes a number of distinct but inter-related medical specialties that diagnose disease through analysis of tissue, cell and body fluid samples.
As a field of research, pathology addresses four components of disease: cause, mechanisms of development (Pathogenesis), structural alterations of cells (Morphologic Changes) and consequences of changes (Clinical Manifestations). In medical practice, pathology is mostly concerned with analysing known clinical abnormalities that are markers or precursors for both infectious and non-infectious disease and is conducted by experts in one of two major specialties, anatomical pathology and clinical pathology.
Dialectology is scientific study of linguistic dialect, a sub-field of sociolinguistics, studies variations in language based primarily on geographic distribution and their associated features. Dialectology treats such topics as divergence of two local dialects from a common ancestor and synchronic variation.
Commonly studied concepts in dialectology include the problem of mutual intelligibility in defining languages, dialects and situations. Dialects are used for different functions 1) dialect continua including a number of partially mutually intelligible dialects and 2) pluricentrism that is essentially a single genetic language exists as two or more standard varieties.
- Orthotics & Prosthetic
Prosthetics & Orthotics is dynamic and expanding allied health science profession, technically, separate disciplines, in common goals in rehabilitation unite them into one cooperative entity. Prosthetics involves the use of artificial limbs to enhance the function and lifestyle of persons with limb loss. The prosthesis must be a unique combination of appropriate materials, alignment, design and construction to match the functional needs of the individual. Lower limb prostheses address stability in standing and walking, shock absorption, energy storage & return, cosmetic appearance and even extraordinary functional needs associated with running, jumping and other athletic activities. Upper limb prostheses address reaching, grasping and specific occupational challenges such as hammering, painting, weight lifting and activities of daily living such as eating, writing and dressing.
- Medical Imaging Technology
Medical imaging is technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (Physiology). Medical imaging seeks to reveal internal structures hidden by the skin and bones as well as to diagnose and treat disease. Medical imaging also establishes a database of normal anatomy and physiology to make it possible to identify abnormalities. Although imaging of removed organs and tissues can be performed for medical reasons such procedures are usually considered part of pathology instead of medical imaging.
As a discipline, it is part of biological imaging and incorporates radiology which uses the imaging technologies of X-ray radiography, magnetic resonance imaging, medical ultrasonography/ultrasound, endoscopy, elastography, tactile imaging, thermography, medical photography and nuclear medicine functional imaging techniques as positron emission tomography (PET) and Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).
- Speech & Language Pathology OR Therapy
Speech-Language Pathology is field of expertise practiced by a clinician known as a speech-language pathologist (SLP) or speech therapist. It is considered a health-related profession or allied health profession along with audiology, behaviour analysis, optometry, occupational therapy, clinical psychology, physical therapy and others. SLPs specialize in evaluation, diagnosis and treatment of communication disorders (Speech and Language Disorders), cognitive-communication disorders, voice disorders and swallowing disorders. SLPs also play an important role in diagnosis and treatment of autism spectrum disorder often in a team with pediatricians and psychologists).
Language impairments, including difficulties creating sentences that are grammatical (Syntax) and modifying word meaning (Morphology). Literacy impairments (Reading and Writing) related to the letter-to-sound relationship (Phonics), word-to-meaning relationship (Semantics) and understanding the ideas presented in a text (Reading Comprehension).
Voice difficulties such as a raspy voice, a voice that is too soft, or other voice difficulties that negatively impact a person’s social or professional performance. Cognitive impairments (Attention, Memory, Executive Function) to the extent that they interfere with communication.
- Operation Theatre Technology
Operation Theatre Technology courses are job oriented. Operation Theatre Technology is an allied healthcare profession that includes assisting doctors in surgery, arranging surgical instruments before surgery, sterilizing instrumentation before surgery, cleaning surgical instruments after surgery, carrying out surgeons’ commands during surgery and taking care of anaesthesia equipment. It works at Operation Theatre of hospitals, Intensive Care Units as well as Emergency Departments. The main task is to assist Doctors and Surgeons during surgery or emergency procedures. Under the setup of a hospital, Operation Theatre technicians are usually part of a team that consists of doctors, nurses and other allied healthcare professionals.
OT Technology courses mentioned above train students in aspects like surgical procedures, surgical instruments, anaesthesia equipment & dose, patient monitoring and OT Ethics. Operation Theatres in hospitals, Emergency Care Departments as well as ICUs in hospitals are places where OT Technicians are needed. For any operation theatre to function smoothly, OT Technicians are needed.
- Medical Laboratory Technology/Science
A medical laboratory scientist (MLS), also referred to medical technologist (MT), clinical laboratory scientist (CLS) or biomedical scientist (BMS), is a healthcare professional who performs chemical, haematological, immunologic, histopathological, cytopathological, microscopic and bacteriological diagnostic analyses on body fluids such as blood, urine, sputum, stool, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), peritoneal fluid, pericardial fluid and synovial fluid as well as other specimens. Medical laboratory scientists work in clinical laboratories at hospitals, reference labs, biotechnology labs and non-clinical industrial labs.
Medical Laboratory Scientists analyze human fluid samples using techniques available to clinical laboratory such as manual white blood cell differentials/counts, bone marrow counts, analysis via microscopy and advanced analytical equipment. Medical laboratory scientists assist doctors and nurses in choosing the correct lab tests and ensure proper collection methods. Medical laboratory scientists receive the patient specimens, analyze the specimens and report results. A pathologist confirms a diagnostic result, but often the medical laboratory scientist is responsible for interpreting and communicating critical patient results to the physician.
- Morbid Anatomy & Histopathology
Pathology (Morbid Anatomy & Histopathology) is concerned with scientific study of diseases, hidden science that is continuously saving life and not merely a discipline that investigate the cause of death. Also includes the causes of diseases and formulating of diagnosis based on the clinical information available to us, diagnosis that eventually direct bedside doctor in the right management of patients. Consequently, we are supposed to be involved in the follow up of the patient and provide prognostic indices.
- Gynecology and Obstetrics
Obstetrics and gynaecology is medical specialty that encompasses two subspecialties of obstetrics (Covering Pregnancy, Childbirth & Postpartum Period) and gynaecology (Covering Health of Female Reproductive System – Vagina, Uterus, Ovaries and Breasts). It’s commonly abbreviated as OB-GYN.
- Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART)
Assisted reproductive technology (ART) are medical procedures used primarily to address infertility. It includes procedures such as in vitro fertilization and may include intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), cryopreservation of gametes or embryos and/or may involve the use of fertility medication. When used to address infertility, it may also be referred to as fertility treatment. ART mainly belongs to the field of reproductive endocrinology and infertility. Some forms of ART are also used with regard to fertile couples for genetic reasons (Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis). ART may also be used in surrogacy arrangements, although not all surrogacy arrangements involve ART.
- Hospital Management (HM)
Health administration, healthcare administration, healthcare management or hospital management is the field relating to leadership, management and administration of public health systems, healthcare systems, hospitals and hospital networks in all primary, secondary and tertiary care sectors.
- Medical Nutrition & Dietetics
A dietitian is an expert in dietetics that is human nutrition and the regulation of diet. A dietitian alters their patients’ nutrition based upon their medical condition and individual needs. Dietitians are regulated healthcare professionals licensed to assess, diagnose, and treat nutritional problems. A registered dietitian (RD) or registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN) is a dietitian who meets all of a set of special academic and professional requirements including the completion of a educational qualification with an accredited nutrition curriculum, an internship at an approved healthcare facility, foodservice organization or community agency and satisfactory performance on a registration exam.
Most RDs work in treatment and prevention of disease often in hospitals, health-maintenance organizations, private practices or other healthcare facilities. In addition, a large number of registered dietitians work in community and public health settings and/or in academia and research. A growing number of dietitians work in the food industry, journalism, sports nutrition, corporate wellness programs and other non-traditional dietetics settings.
- Cardiovascular Technology
Cardiovascular technologists are health professionals deal with the circulatory system. Those who assist physicians in the diagnosis of disorders affecting the circulation are known as vascular technologists, vascular specialists or vascular sonographers. They obtain a medical history, evaluate pulses and assess blood flow in arteries and veins by listening to the vascular flow sounds for abnormalities. They perform a non-invasive procedure using ultrasound instrumentation to record vascular information such as vascular blood flow, blood pressure, changes in limb volume, oxygen saturation, cerebral circulation, peripheral circulation and abdominal circulation. Many of these tests are performed during or immediately after surgery.
- Community Based Rehabilitation & Disability Studies
Community Based Rehabilitation & Disability Studies to design, deliver and evaluate community based support services to form alliances that promote full participation in the community. Professionals have global opportunities to work in areas such as career development, aging, brain injury, fetal alcohol syndrome, physical disability, inclusive education, research and more. A degree in Community Rehabilitation and Disability Studies can also be used as a stepping-stone to graduate studies or another professional degree such as law, medicine, speech and language pathology or physical therapy.
An effort to enhance the quality of life for people with disabilities and their families, meet their basic needs and ensure their inclusion and participation while initially a strategy to increase access to rehabilitation services in resource-constrained settings, CBR is now a multisectoral approach working to improve the equalization of opportunities and social inclusion of people with disabilities while combating the perpetual cycle of poverty and disability.
- Medical Ultrasound Technology
Medical ultrasound (Diagnostic Sonography or Ultrasonography) is a diagnostic imaging technique based on the application of ultrasound. It is used to create an image of internal body structures such as tendons, muscles, joints, blood vessels and internal organs. Its aim is often to find a source of a disease or to exclude pathology. The practice of examining pregnant women using ultrasound is called obstetric ultrasound and is an early development and application of clinical ultrasonography. Compared to other dominant methods of medical imaging, ultrasound has several advantages. It provides images in real-time and is portable and can be brought to the bedside. It is substantially lower in cost than other imaging modalities and does not use harmful ionizing radiation. Drawbacks include various limits on its field of view, such as the need for patient cooperation, dependence on physique, difficulty imaging structures behind bone and air, and the necessity of a skilled operator, usually a trained professional.
(8) TECHNICAL & INDUSTRY DEMAND DRIVEN EDUCATION
Technical education has been introduced to promote the local and international skill/business-based demand-driven courses in industrial sector including professional cooking, basic housekeeping, barista, office management and food service. Trained manpower in hospitality sector is required in not only Middle East but across the globe as well. These courses would ultimately help fill the gap by providing skilled manpower to this sector. In order to enhance the global competitiveness in Punjab through quality and productive workforce by developing demand driven, standardized, dynamic and integrated technical education and vocational training service, TEVTA offers need-based courses in the sector of emerging technologies to the industry and also to offer services for solutions regarding associated production problem.
- Chinese Language
Chinese Language course provides basics of written and spoken Mandarin Chinese. Modern China is playing an increasingly influential role in the world’s political, financial and economic spheres and with Mandarin Chinese being spoken by over one billion people within China. Students learn about formation of written Chinese characters, words and how to talk. Words and phrases are presented via audio, Chinese script and English to facilitate learning. Course is designed for listening, speaking, and reading writing Chinese Language. Online Chinese classes to understand basic dialects and prevalence to Chinese language become familiar with basics of pronunciation of Mandarin Chinese through the use of Pinyin (Sound of 6 Chinese vowels also known as finals and sound 36 Chinese consonants also known as initials) and understand how characters are formed in written Chinese and how words are composed in different styles of writing.
With the initiation of CPEC and increased interaction of local populace with Chinese Companies, PCI observed that there is a communication gap between Pakistanis and Chinese. With Pakistan China Institute playing pivotal role in Pakistan-China relations we believe it is our duty to bridge this gap and for that we have initiated Chinese Language Classes for professionals in collaboration with the Confucius Institute. Confucius Institute is an educational organization affiliated with the Ministry of Education of People’s Republic of China aiming to promote Chinese Culture and Language locally and internationally.
- Allied Health
Allied health professionals are experts in a multitude of therapeutic, diagnostic and preventive health interventions. These professionals comprise a significant percentage of the healthcare workforce.
A hospitality service, also known as accommodation sharing, hospitality exchange, home stay network or home hospitality network is a centrally organized social networking service of travelers who offer or seek homestays (Lodging in Home) either gratis or for money. The Hospitality, travel and tourism industry is the fastest growing industry of the world which is creating millions of new career opportunities for graduates. Managing human resources in hospitality poses special challenges including highly diverse employee backgrounds roles, ever-present focus on guest services and organizational structures.
Hospitality services connect users via internet and are examples of collaborative consumption and sharing. Hospitality services collect commissions on each homestay or charge a membership fee. All personnel placed in hospitality services go through a rigorous studies and training process that gives them the opportunity to develop their skills levels to provide the clients a high level of service. Hospitality services provide a full range of services from the front of the house to the back of the house.
- Information Technology
This course enables aspirants to measure organizations’ ICT accessibility and assess importance of maintaining an inclusive workplace for both employees and customers. This course consists of modules detailing some of the primary ICT accessibility obstacles facing organizations today. Each module is taught by a subject matter expert through content rich videos, activities and discussion forums. Whether you work in corporate, government or non-profit sector, this course will enable you to identify ICT accessibility issues, analyze specific needs and evaluate possible solutions. As the world becomes more technology driven, organizations of all sizes and sectors touch ICT accessibility whether through website design, document creation or multimedia utilization. Start outlining a plan to establish and maintain an accessible enterprise operation today.
ICT course will consist of six modules over a six-week term. Each module will consist of multiple video lessons. The lesson videos will include instructional content, resources, demonstrations, guest subject matter experts and personal interviews. There will be at least one weekly activity assignment, two discussion forum question postings and one graded ten question multiple-choice quiz at the end of each module. There are one-year programs in the areas of Big Data, Digital Marketing and Fund Accounting.
Publication is defined as distribution of copies of a work to public by sale or other transfer of ownership or by rental, lease or lending. Publication is a technical term in legal contexts and especially important in copyright legislation. An author of a work generally is the initial owner of copyright on work. The offering to distribute copies to a group of people for purposes of distribution, public performance or public display constitutes publication. There is an enormous variety of material types of publication, some of which are as under:
Book: Pages attached together between two covers to allow a person to read.
Bulletin: Information written on a flyer or inside another publication for public viewing. Bulletin is also brief message or announcement broadcast to a wide audience via TV, radio or internet.
Booklet: Leaflet of more than one sheet of paper usually attached in style of a book.
Broadside: A large single sheet of paper printed on one side, designed to be plastered onto walls.
Flyer/Handbill: A small sheet of paper printed on one side, designed to be handed out free.
Leaflet: Single sheet of paper printed on both sides and folded.
Journal: A book with blank pages inside allowing you to write down personal information.
Newsletter: A bulletin, leaflet, pamphlet or newspaper distributed to a specific audience.
Newspaper: A publication of several pages printed with news, sports, information and advertising, published and distributed daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly or annually.
Magazine: A book with front and back paper covers, printed with information and advertising. Some magazines are published and distributed on weekly or monthly basis.
Pamphlet: A leaflet, booklet or saddle-stapled booklet.
Electronic publishing also referred e-publishing or digital publishing or online publishing includes digital publication of e-books, digital magazines, digital libraries and catalogues. Electronic publishing has become common. It is also becoming common to distribute books, magazines and newspapers to consumers through digital devices via online sources. Modern computing and networking have revolutionized publishing. Electronic publishing can also be distinguished by content some of them are as follows:
Brochure: An informative document made for advertising products or services usually in the form of a pamphlet or leaflet.
Tract: A religious or political argument written by one person and designed to be distributed free, usually in the form of a booklet or pamphlet, but sometimes longer.
Monograph: A long research publication written by one person.
A work that has not undergone publication and thus is not generally available to the public or for citation in scholarly or legal contexts is called an unpublished work. In some cases, unpublished work is widely cited or circulated via informal means. An author who has not yet published a work may also be referred to as unpublished.
The textile sector is inculcating the brightest technical minds of country and equip them with skills necessary to manage clothing industry. It envisions producing successful graduates capable of leading the fast-faced paced changing scenarios of today’s apparel industry through intellect, innovation and values. Research and educational activities are conducted by proficient, devoted and well-qualified faculty and staff members having ample experience in various fields of garment manufacturing.
An active interaction with industry is main feature of teaching philosophy, industrial visits, internships, symposiums and participation in workshops and industrial exhibitions are frequently carried out for students learning. Garments manufacturing is also dynamically involved in providing consultancy services to textile sector and public sector organizations.
CFT Asia (Clothing, Fabrics & Textile Asia) is one of the biggest fairs in its field in Pakistan be organized at Lahore Expo Centre & Karachi Expo Centre by hosting more than 300 local and foreign exhibitors includes Pakistan, Turkey, China, Malaysia, Italy, Germany, Russia, Belgium, India, Japan and other countries showcasing an extensive and latest selection of fabrics and materials of textile industry. Clothing, Fabrics and Textile Asia bring together yarn, fabric, trims and clothing manufacturers, retailers and designers by providing a pure business platform with a wide range of high creativity fabrics with an excellent price and quality relationship. Clothing, Fabrics and Textile Asia is essential sourcing event in Pakistan for buyers, product development specialists, designers, merchandisers, overseas sourcing professionals and R&D wing. CFT takes place with new concepts, latest designs and products to create the most effective business platform for industry.
Cooking/Cookery is art, technology and craft of preparing food for consumption with or without the use of heat. Cooking techniques and ingredients vary widely across the world, from grilling food over an open fire to using electric stoves, to baking in various types of ovens, reflecting unique environmental, economic/cultural traditions and trends. Cooking also depends on skills and type of training the cook has. Cooking is done both by people in their own dwellings, by professional cooks/chefs in restaurants and other food establishments. Cooking can also occur through chemical reactions without the presence of heat such as in ceviche, a traditional South American dish where fish is cooked with the acids in lemon or lime juice.
- Fashion Designing
Fashion designing is the art of applying design, aesthetics and natural beauty to clothing and its accessories. It is influenced by cultural and social attitudes and has varied over time and place. Fashion designers work in a number of ways in designing clothing and accessories such as bracelets and necklaces. Because of the time required to bring a garment onto the market, designers must anticipate changes to consumer tastes.
Designers conduct research on fashion trends and interpret them for their audience. Their specific designs are used by manufacturers. This is essence of designer’s role, however, there is variation within this that is determined by the buying and merchandising approach and product quality. For example, budget retailers use inexpensive fabrics to interpret trends, but high-end retailers ensure that the best available fabrics are used.
Fashion designers attempt to design clothes which are functional as well as aesthetically pleasing. They consider who is likely to wear a garment and the situations in which it will be worn and work within a wide range of materials, colours, patterns and styles. Though most clothing worn for everyday wear falls within a narrow range of conventional styles, unusual garments are usually sought for special occasions such as evening wear or party dresses. Today, most clothing is designed for mass market, especially casual and every-day wear is called ready to wear.
Fashion designer may work full-time for one fashion house, as in-house designers which owns the designs or they work alone or as part of team. Freelance designers work for themselves, selling their designs to fashion houses, directly to shops or to clothing manufacturers. Some fashion designers set up their own labels under which their designs are marketed. Some fashion designers are self-employed and design for individual clients. Other high-end fashion designers cater to specialty stores or high-end fashion department stores. These designers create original garments as well as those that follow established fashion trends. Most fashion designers work for apparel manufacturers, creating designs of men’s, women’s and children’s fashions for the mass market. Large designer brands which have a name as their brand are likely to be designed by a team of individual designers under the direction of a design director.
Fashion designers work in different ways. Some sketch their ideas on paper while others drape fabric on a dress form. When a designer is completely satisfied with the fit of the toile, he/she consults a professional pattern maker who then makes the finished, working version of the pattern out of card or via a computerized system. Finally, a sample garment is made up and tested on a model to make sure it is an operational outfit.
- Clinical Assistant
A Clinical/Medical Assistant is a medical support professional that performs a variety of tasks to assist physicians in providing patient care while ensuring that clinics and hospitals run smoothly and efficiently. There are a few industries that offer as much opportunity and stability as healthcare industry does. If you are considering a career in healthcare, becoming a clinical/medical assistant may be suitable for you. Career in medical assisting can provide you with everything you are looking for: a short academic with training period, excellent job opportunities, good salary and professional working environment. If you are ready to start a career as a healthcare support worker, you may find everything you need to become a clinical/medical assistant right here. While administrative medical assistants work mainly at front desk and reception area of clinic or doctor’s office.
Clinical medical assistants must also be excellent communicators. They must be able to convey ideas and information succinctly and must also be able to listen and pay attention to the details of all the information they receive. Since much of the information exchanged will only be stated once and often while the medical assistant is performing other tasks, good listening is one of the top skills physicians look for when hiring medical assistants.
In well-staffed practices, clinical/medical assistants perform some administrative duties. These duties may include filing records, scheduling lab work, hospital admissions, making follow-up calls to patients, phoning in prescriptions and calling to get lab test results.
Clinical/medical assistants are recognized as some of the most versatile and important members of medical practice. Some medical assistants have been able to enter the field with no more than a high school diploma. However, healthcare field have created a need for formally trained medical assistants which is what most employers look for.
- Office Management
Office management is involving designing, implementation, evaluation and maintenance of work within an office or organization in order to sustain and improve efficiency and productivity. Office management is part of overall administration of business and since elements of management are forecasting, planning, organizing, command, control and coordination, office is a part of total management function.
An office manager is responsible for monitoring and reviewing systems, usually focusing on specific outcomes such as improved timescales, turnover, output, sales, etc. They may supervise or manage team of administrators, allocating roles, induction, training and issuing assignments and projects.
Beauticians wash, condition, color, cut and style hair. They offer hair and makeup tips to accentuate a client’s best features. Some also provide manicures, pedicures, facials, hair removal, skincare and eyebrow shaping. Other duties include using appointment scheduling software, operating a cash register and recommending styling products. You should also know that beauticians need physical stamina to stand for long hours. Frequent bending over at shampoo bowl and repetitive movements of wrists when using styling tools can cause aches and pains. Inhaling and mixing harsh chemicals common in hair solutions requires adequate ventilation and careful handling to avoid respiratory problems and skin irritation.
Most beauticians work in beauty salons. A few are employed at hotels and spas. Typically, the setting is pleasant, comfortable and relaxed. Whether you are just starting out, renting a booth in a shop or managing your own salon income may vary considerably from week to week, depending on the season, specials that competitors offer or weather-related appointment cancellations.
- Domestic Tailoring
A professional sewing course to develop your basic machine sewing skills to professional standard. It focuses on how to make lightweight garments for women looking at the techniques used in top-quality ready-to-wear pieces, tackling cut-work organisations, garment assembly and handling methods which are crucial in saving time and raising standards.
- Confectionery & Bakery
The professional Confectionery baking and sweets course is a comprehensive training course with a detailed focus on the contemporary confectionery baking and sweets concepts. The training provides conceptual theoretical knowledge combined with hands on training preparing students for a rewarding career in the.
In professional confectionery and baking sweets course students begin their training with kitchen terminology, measuring and scaling techniques and launch their practical skill training in artisan breads, pastry dough and batters, cookies, fillings and chocolates.
The careers available for aspirants who have completed a course in baking can vary widely depending on their experience and if they have additional academic credits. Some potential job titles may include artisan bread baker, caterer, cake designer, chocolatier, baking assistant and pastry chef. There are additional opportunities for students with a business or entrepreneurial background. For them, titles may include bakery owner, kitchen manager, baking teacher and pastry developer. Students interested in a baking career can start looking for courses now, whether they are looking for a local or international program.
- Graphic Designing
This course opens up opportunities for students who are seeking career in the field of graphic design. It introduces creative, functional and aesthetic role of graphic design in print industry. By understanding the basics of design principles, students develop their ability to communicate messages through meaningful visuals. Typography is the most important component of graphic design and students study history of type, type anatomy and typographic terms while examining design compositions, type styles and the use of font in print design. This course develops an understanding of process of design thinking to create ideas/concepts and critical attitude towards the organization and structure of text and image-based design.
Graphic Design course covers the fundamental concepts of visual design which enable participants to design brochures, backdrops, logos, typography, infographics, presentation images etc. The course covers introduction to creative thinking & getting hands-on experience on Adobe Photoshop and Illustrator. The curriculum is highly engaging and full of practical design assignments ensuring the participants make a design portfolio by the end of the course.
Originating from Iran, Kashi is one of the oldest handicrafts of Sindh. Kashi is a term applied to enamelled work on the Terracotta base. Kashi is a Persian word which means designating to the tiles or trimmed to the form of pieces of faience serving to cover entire, or partial fabric of a building principally decorative. A special technique is applied to prepare the blue colour from a mixture of cobalt oxide and copper oxide. In Pakistan, the main centres of Kashigari is in Multan, Lahore, Thatta, Hala, Nasarpur, Mahra Sharif and Dera Ismail Khan. However, due to lack of resources, the art is fading in the region.
Tile art came to Portugal in the 16th century and made a lasting impact on its cultural heritage. Azulejo is a Spanish and Portuguese art of painting tin-glazed ceramic tiles that is found on the interior and exterior of churches, palaces, ordinary houses, schools and nowadays, restaurants, bars and even railways or subway stations.
Senior artists Ahmed Habib, Zia Zaidi and Riffat Khattak, as well as upcoming artist Ayesha Hassan, have used different patterns, geometrical figures such as triangles, pentagons and hexagons and leaves and flowers inspired by the ‘kashigari’ art of Hala in Sindh, used on shrines and mosques with Azulejo.
- Machine Embroidery
Machine embroidery is an embroidery process whereby a sewing machine or embroidery machine is used to create patterns on textiles. It is used commercially in product branding, corporate advertising and uniform adornment. It is also used in the fashion industry to decorate garments and apparel. Machine embroidery is used by hobbyists and crafters to decorate gifts, clothing and home decor. Examples include designs on quilts, pillows and wall hangings.
There are multiple types of machine embroidery. Free-motion sewing machine embroidery uses a basic zigzag sewing machine. Designs are done manually. Most commercial embroidery is done with link stitch embroidery. In link stitch embroidery, patterns may be manually or automatically controlled. Link Stitch embroidery is also known as chenille embroidery and is patented by Pulse Microsystems. More modern computerized machine embroidery uses an embroidery machine or sewing/embroidery machine that is controlled with a computer that embroiders stored patterns. These machines may have multiple heads and threads.
Most modern embroidery machines are computer controlled and specifically engineered for embroidery. Industrial and commercial embroidery machines and combination sewing-embroidery machines have a hooping or framing system that holds the framed area of fabric taut under the sewing needle and moves it automatically to create a design from a pre-programmed digital embroidery pattern. Depending on its capabilities, the machine requires varying degrees of user input to read and sew embroidery designs. Sewing-embroidery machines generally have only one needle and require the user to change thread colors during the embroidery process. Multi-needle industrial machines are generally threaded prior to running the design and do not require re-threading.
- Web Designing
Web designing refers to the design of websites that are displayed on the internet. It usually refers to the user experience aspects of website development rather than software development. Web designing is used to be focused on designing websites for desktop browsers.
Web designing encompasses the skills and disciplines in production and maintenance of websites. The areas of web designing include web graphic design, interface design, authoring including standardised code and proprietary software, user experience design and search engine optimization. The individuals work for web designing coveres all aspects of designing process although some designers cover them all. The term web designing is used to describe the design process relating to the front-end (Client Side) designing of a website including writing mark-up. Web designing partially overlaps web engineering in the broader scope of web development. Web designers are expected to have an awareness of usability and if their role involves creating mark-up then they are also expected to be up to date with web accessibility guidelines.
Everything about website including content, way it looks and way it works is determined by the website design. Web design is a process of conceptualizing, planning and building a collection of electronic files that determine the layout, colours, text styles, structure, graphics, images and use of interactive features that deliver pages to site visitors.
A web designer works on appearance, layout and content of a website. Appearance, for instance, relates to colours, font and images used. Layout refers to how information is structured and categorized. A good web designing is easy to use, aesthetically pleasing, and suits the user group and brand of website. Webpages are designed with a focus on simplicity so that no extraneous information and functionality that may distract or confuse users appears. As keystone of a web designer’s output is a site that wins and fosters the trust of target audience, removing as many potential points of user frustration as possible is a critical consideration.
Two of the most common methods for designing websites that work well both on desktop and mobile are responsive and adaptive design. In responsive design, content moves dynamically depending on screen size. In adaptive design, the website content is fixed in layout sizes that match common screen sizes. Preserving a layout that is as consistent as possible between devices is crucial to maintaining user trust and engagement. As responsive design can present difficulties in this regard, designers must be careful in relinquishing control of how their work will appear.
- Textile Designing
The role of textile designing is to design and produce an agreed timetable, an agreed number of commercially viable fabric designs. Art of textile designing is as old as beginning of mankind. Nowadays, different types of companies are involved in production of textiles and clothing and have huge manufacturing plants in different countries. Since Pakistan is 4th largest cotton producer in the world, the textile industry is backbone of Pakistan economy. There is good scope in the field of textile designing in Pakistan. Approximately there are more than 1000 textile mills and exporters in Pakistan located in major cities like Karachi, Faisalabad, Lahore, Gujranwala and Sialkot. Textile designing can be divided into the categories like (a) Colour specialist who predicts and forecasts future colour ranges, (b) Story designers, (c) Knitted fabric designer, (d) Woven fabric designer, (e) Carpet designer, (f) Print designer, (g) Embroidery designer, (h) Knitwear designer, (i) Garment designer, (j) Accessories designer and (k) Stylist.
- Apparel Designing
Apparel designing conceptualize and create clothing items. Students specialize in one type of design casual, evening or active wear. It prepares students to meet the requirements of fashion industry and articulate their own vision through clothing they design and make. Emphasizing conceptual rigor matched by strong artistic and technical skills, the program guides majors through each stage of the apparel design process from concept sketches to beautifully executed wearable. It explores a range of materials and learns pattern of drafting, draping and construction while becoming adept at using industry software to design and render clothing. Practical skill-building is supported by examination of historical and cultural context with grounding in workings of fashion industry. Apparel designing and product development professionals design sportswear, suits, dresses, coats, accessories and everything else people wear. Designers research colour and style trends to create concepts and sketches for fashions one to two years in advance of market. Some create new garment styles while others adapt styles from a previous season. We have useful information on what students can do with a degree in Apparel Designing including skills, career planning and possible careers such as (a) Apparel engineer, (b) Apparel designer, (c) Technical designer, (d) Product developer, (e) Colour/Trend forecaster, (f) Brand manager, (g) Computer aided design specialist, (h) Pattern maker, (i) Specifications coordinator, (j) Fabric/Trim coordinator, (k) Cost/Production manager, (l) Product quality assurance engineer, (m) Theatre costume designer and (n) Costume shop supervisor.
- Tourism & Hospitality
Degrees in tourism and hospitality may also be referred to as hotel management, hotel and tourism / management. It encompasses hotels, restaurants, cruise ships, amusement parks, destination marketing, organizations, convention centres and country clubs. Core subjects include accounting, administration, finance, information systems, marketing, human resource management, public relations, strategy, quantitative methods and sectorial studies.
As a vast, dynamic and growing industry, hospitality and tourism provides tremendous opportunity for ambitious students who enjoy working with people. It is important that those seeking careers as successful professionals develop a strong business foundation and customer service skills. Today program is offered by variety of vocational schools, community colleges and both public and private universities. Tourism and hospitality graduates pursue career in airline manager, cruise staff, hotel manager, event organiser or travel counsellor.
- Media Studies
Media study deals with content, history and effects of mass media. Researchers may also develop and employ theories and methods from disciplines including cultural studies, rhetoric (including digital rhetoric), philosophy, literary theory, psychology, political science, political economy, economics, sociology, anthropology, social theory, art history, film theory, feminist theory and information theory. Film, TV and media studies are designed for students passionate about a career in Television, Film or related screen-based industries. Bachelor of TV, Film & Media Studies is hands-on & project-based program allowing students to have practical production experience.